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Angelic Issues IX

[posted 5/18/19]

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Question #1:

Hi Bob,

I was listening to a biblical scholar who said that the word "habitation" in the Greek is "oiketerion" and said that it is only mentioned twice in the NT (Jude 6; 2 Cor. 5:2). He then said that the Greek word refers to a "body" as in 2 Cor. 5:2 where Paul speaks of us believers awaiting to be clothed with our glorified bodies. Furthermore, he stated that this means that the angels "shed" their celestial bodies to engage themselves in sin while on Earth (2 Pet. 2:4-5). His premise was the "days of Noah" mentioned by Jesus will be parallel to the days before the Second Advent. That is, fallen angels will be involved in making hybrids, once again producing nephilim. Is his exegesis of those texts correct?

Response #1: 

The word oiketerion means "little house". It is definitely used at 2nd Corinthians 5:2 for our "next body" (whether resurrection or interim). It does not have that meaning at Jude 1:6, however; there it refers to the proper place of angels, but indeed the context is talking about the fallen angels violating their ground rules in producing the Nephilim in Genesis chapter six. Angels cannot "shed" anything; but the fallen angels did act in unauthorized ways. See the link: "Satan's fall from grace".

Question #2:  

The Catholic Church uses Revelation 5:8 and 8:3-4 to support the false doctrine of the intercession of the saints. I have read what you wrote about these verses and it seemed to me that the clearest argument to show that the elders in revelation 5:8 is that the scripture does not allow for them to be already rewarded, since the judgment seat of Christ follows His second coming. This shows they are not human and if they are not human, then they are an angelic rank. However, when reading around the subject I came across an observation I found very bright and it's regarding Revelation 5:9:

Revelation 5:8-10 NASB
8 When He had taken the book, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, each one holding a harp and golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints. 9 And they *sang a new song, saying, “Worthy are You to take the book and to break its seals; for You were slain, and purchased for God with Your blood men from every tribe and tongue and people and nation. 10 “You have made them to be a kingdom and priests to our God; and they will reign upon the earth.”

The four living creatures and the twenty-four elders say that God have made "them to be a kingdom and priests to our God" - they are not referring to themselves, but to men, as in verse 9. In verse 9 there is a clear reference to the redemption of men and if the elders were human, then they would have to refer to themselves also, since they would also be in need of redemption (I know that the wrong textual variant says just that, but not the correct reading). Now since they say that God purchased men and made them a kingdom, which clearly distinguishes between them and the men of whom they are singing - and since from it we know they did not need the redemption - then they are clearly angelic. I'm not sure if I presented this argument in the clearest way, but hopefully you see the point. Let me know what you think and if you would add anything else here, given that the text is written for catholics who don't know how a man is saved, never mind the details on eschatology. I just want to give the strongest and clearest arguments to show that elders are not human.

Response #2: 

Well done! An excellent point which by itself settles the issue – and in conjunction with the other evidence leaves no room for doubt but that the elders are angels (see the link).

Question #3: 

Should we understand that in Revelation 5:8-10 and 8:3-4 we are shown that the angels present our prayers to God? That's what I would like to understand - why is it that they are actually involved in the process of taking petitions to the Lord?

Response #3: 

In the first passage, Revelation 5:8-10, these angels glorify God for what He has done for mankind, but I don't see where they put forward any petitions for human beings here. In the second passage, Revelation 8:3-4, the angels are intermediaries of carrying out the prayers of human beings on God's behalf – but that is what angels do throughout scripture. They are "ministering spirits" (Heb.1:7), acting not of their own accord in presenting petitions but serving the Lord in carrying out ours in the way He directs.

Question #4:   

This is the one issue I would like to understand better - you mention that you don't see them putting forward any petitions for human beings there and this is true, so how should we explain the fact that they hold those bowls full of incense "as prayers of the saints"? Is it also to do with the fact they are just involved in carrying these prayers to God?

Based on your exegesis in Part 3A of the Coming Tribulation I explained the distinction between the incense and the prayers in Revelation 8:3-4, but in Revelation 5:8 the incense is given "as prayers", which could be taken that incense is prayers - so the distinction from chapter 8 would seem not to be present. How to explain this difference?

Response #4: 

Bowls: angels clearly are given a role in administering the prayers of the saints. That does not mean they pray for the saints. Even if they are seen to collect the prayers of the saints (not the case; see next answer), it wouldn't mean they pray of their own accord for the saints. That never ever happens in scripture.

Incense: Here is my expanded translation from CT 2B:

And when He took the scroll, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell [down] before the Lamb, each with a lyre and golden bowls of incense, which [incense] is as prayers of the saints (i.e., Christ's sacrifice which validates our prayers is represented by the incense; see part 3).
Revelation 5:8

The incense is not prayers (note, no definite article), but merely represents ("is as") prayers.  That is what the Greek text says.  Translators (and editors of Greek critical editions) in trying to make this more palatable in English have often subverted the true meaning entirely.

Question #5: 

Hello Professor,

Understood and this is also the point which I need to make clearly in the text - angels are given a role in administering the prayers of believers, but that does not mean they pray for believers. Both Revelation 5:8 and 8:3-4 make it clear and there is no mention of the latter in either.

I'm still not clear about the incense though and perhaps I didn't phrase my question clearly enough. My difficulty is in understanding why the incense is said to be "as prayers of the saints" in Revelation 5:8, but in Revelation 8:3-4 the incense - which, as you wrote, symbolises the acceptability of supplications achieved through our Lord's death - is added to/for the prayers.

So in the second passage the incense symbolises our Lord's sacrifice making the prayers acceptable and this incense is added to the prayers, but in Revelation 5:8 incense is "as prayers", or "prayers", which makes the meaning of incense different. In Revelation 8:3-4 it is a symbol of acceptability of the prayers and is added to the prayers and in Revelation 5:8 it seems to stand for the prayers themselves.

The Polish Catholic translation ignores the dative and incorrectly renders Revelation 8:4 as "and the smoke of the incense as the prayers of the saints went up". I wanted to ask - although this is, as you point, "dative of advantage" (It seems it is also referred to as dativus commodi?), would you see a translation "with" as acceptable here? In English, "for" works well here, in Polish it is somewhat awkward and I have been thinking if "with" could still be acceptable, even if not as literate.

You wrote:

"Since, as this image of the incense shows, our Lord's substitutionary death is completely acceptable to the Father, a sweet savor (which the incense reproduces) satisfying His righteous demand for the propitiation of all our sin, it has also opened up the floodgates of grace for all who turn to God through faith in Jesus Christ. For this reason, the image of the incense has a further application, namely, to express the validation or rendering acceptable of everything done in His Name. That is clearly the main thrust of the image of the incense used here in Revelation 8:4, where its sweet savor is said to rise up for the prayers of the saints.(5) In other words, these prayers are made and considered completely valid through this heavenly incense – though not through the incense per se, but rather by the empowering sweet aroma of the victory of Jesus Christ on the cross which the incense represents."

My difficulty is in understanding why the incense is said to be "as prayers of the saints" in Revelation 5:8, but in Revelation 8:3-4 the incense - which, as you wrote, symbolises the acceptability of supplications achieved through our Lord's death - is added to/for the prayers.

I think Meyer may have come to the rescue. He writes: "The Α may, by attraction, be referred to the ΘΥΜΙΑΜΆΤΩΝ,[1932] yet the formally more simple reference to ΦΙΆΛΑς may be adopted, as the vials are just such as are filled with incense."

This would reconcile the two passages and the problem I had - the expression "which are the prayers of the saints" refers to the golden bowls - not to the incense. Do you think that's right?

Response #5: 

Incense symbolizes prayers; whether it says "as" or "are" the meaning is the same: everyone knows that prayers are not incense and incense is not prayers, but prayers are acceptable to the Lord, coming from believers, and have a "sweet smell" to Him. That is what the incense symbolizes – and it is symbolic in both passages, regardless of the language. It is not uncommon for Greek even in the NT to say "are / is" when the meaning is "are / is [equivalent to / symbolic of]"; what will make the issue clear is a context where the two things, the subject and the predicate, are clearly not precisely the same thing – so that one must symbolize or stand for the other.

Question #6:  

Regarding the incense and Revelation 5:8 and 8:3-4, I will ask you for some help then, so as to explain the symbolism clearly here. Having read your explanation in the Coming Tribulation Part 3A, I have written that the incense is a symbol of acceptability of prayers.

And in footnote 5 you explain:

5. Probably because of a failure to understand that the incense empowers prayers (lit., is "for [the benefit of] the prayers"), the use of the dative case here has proved puzzling for many commentators. The dative case in Greek is frequently used in this sense of "for the benefit of" (often termed the "dative of advantage", essentially equivalent to our English preposition "for" in this sense).

Based on the above, I have provided an explanation of incense as standing for acceptability of our prayers achieved through our Lord's sacrifice. I thought this is a really helpful clarification of the meaning of incense which brings both the Old and New Testament references and I am confident none of the readers would have made that link themselves. I have also made the clarification you provide in the footnote, since the main Polish translation also completely ignores the dative and says "incense as the prayer of the saints" instead of "for" or "with".

So I just wanted to get your guidance as to how to go about this issue. Perhaps I have drawn too sharp a distinction between the incense and the prayers themselves and this distinction, although present in Revelation 8:3-4, is not seen in Revelation 5:8. Should we treat the incense as having a double symbolism and standing for both prayers and the acceptability of those prayers through our Lord's sacrifice?

And then my other, more general question would be whether the fact that the elders hold the golden bowls with prayers in Revelation 5:8 in their hands should simply be taken as indicating their involvement in taking our supplications to God? It is not explicitly mentioned in that particular passage, as it is in Revelation 8:3-4, but it seems that would be in any case perhaps the only purpose why they would have them. I didn't want to go beyond what is written here, but be able to explain why they hold the prayers in the first place.

Response #6: 

When you write, " incense as standing for acceptability of our prayers achieved through our Lord's sacrifice", that is exactly right in my opinion.

As to the possibility of any role for the angelic elders, other than the one here, I don't see that in scripture. It seems to me that their role as described in Revelation is purely one of ritual which has symbolic meaning. Practically speaking, we are believer priests (even in Revelation: Rev.1:6) who have access to the Father directly through the blood of Christ (Eph.2:18; 3:12; Heb.4:16), and also the right to pray directly to Christ (Jn.14:14). God clearly has no need of angels collecting up / organizing prayers. It's not impossible of course but I don't see it here, anymore than I see the offering of incense on the altar in Jerusalem as being more than a symbolic ritual. God does use angels to carry out His responses to prayer (cf. Heb.1:14) – even though He could do everything Himself easily enough – but that is paralleled by His use of believers to minister to the Body of Christ.

Question #7: 

I apologise I keep coming back to these two verses. I want to understand them and the symbols they describe so as to present a clear rebuttal of the catholic nonsense argument, but some questions still remain.

This is the difficulty I'm having - the incense stands for acceptability of prayers in Revelation 8:3-4 and this verse seems to draw a distinction between the prayers and the incense. But in Revelation 5:8, according to most translations, the incense stands for the prayers. So in one verse the incense stands for acceptability and is distinguished from the prayers, but in the other it seems to stand for the prayers themselves.

This is also why I thought that maybe in Revelation 5:8 the words αἵ εἰσιν αἱ προσευχαὶ των ἁγιων don't refer to θυμιαματων, but rather to φιαλας χρυσας - so that the incense is still a symbol of acceptability and the prayers are symbolically represented by the bowls.

I'm not sure if explained it clearly this time, hopefully you see what I mean.

As for the role of the angels - would you agree with the following summary:

a) In Revelation 5:8 the elders are only described as holding the prayers of believers in, as you wrote, a ritual which has a symbolic meaning. The passage doesn't say what they do with these prayers and so it cannot be used to support the doctrine of intercession.

b) In Revelation 8:3-4 the angel only adds the incense to the prayers and the incense stands for the acceptability of these prayers achieved through our Lord's sacrifice.

Neither passage explicitly even mentions the prayers being taken to the Lord by the angels, although it would seem possible that they play a role there. There is obviously no mention, however, of them praying for us.

Response #7:

I do see what you are saying, but to me these are just two ways of saying the same thing. In both cases, the incense is NOT the same as the prayers; and in both cases it has something to do with representing the prayers; so it is symbolic of the prayers in both cases, even though that symbolism is described somewhat differently in the two cases.

As to your summary, I agree completely!

Question #8: 

I decided to provide my own translations of Revelation 5:8 and 8:3-4 and in the latter the catholic translation ignores the dative in ταις προσευχαις and translates "so that he might offer it as the prayers" - which is clearly wrong.

a) I provided a somewhat literal rendering with "for", which doesn't sound as good in Polish as it does in English, unfortunately. Do you think "with" could also be used here?

b) I wanted to ask if it would be correct to state in the explanation that if John wanted to say "so that he might offer it as prayers", then he would have used the nominative both for θυμιαματα and for προσευχαις or he would have used ὡς? It is not a necessary addition and if I was to make this point, I need to make sure it's correct, but when it comes to Greek I would need to rely on your expertise rather than my own limited understanding.

Response #8: 

I like your additions. "With" is fine. Translation is an approximation of meaning and very hard to fine-tune if one is really concerned to get it as right as possible. On ὡς, you are correct to say that the dative case eliminates the possibility of the incense "being" the prayers; the nominative would be used for equivalency even if ὡς were used since that particle compares/contrasts two things in the same case.

By the way, this also argues for Revelation 5:8 meaning "are" only in the sense of "are equivalent to / symbolic of" because here, in Revelation 8:3, it has to be equivalence only. In other words, the first passage might theoretically go either way, the second one cannot; they both have to mean the same thing, so the second passage governs the interpretation.

Question #9:

I understand your point about Revelation 8:3 governing the interpretation and this has exactly been the issue I have been considering. However, there is another point which occurred to me just now that would seem to support the idea that in both verses the meaning of the symbol of incense is the same, standing for the acceptability of prayers and not the prayers themselves. Hopefully I can explain this clearly.

Based on Revelation 8:3 we know that incense - "θυμιαματα" - is added to the prayers, so it does symbolise the prayers themselves.

Now Revelation 5:8 seems more ambiguous in this respect, because it could seem as if the phrase "φιαλας χρυσας γεμουσας, θυμιαματων προσευχαὶ των ἁγιων" could equate the incense with the prayers.

It seems there could be a solution here that makes things clear and that could lead to the conclusion that in Revelation 5:8 the words "αἵ εἰσιν αἱ προσευχαὶ των ἁγιων" refer back to "φιαλας χρυσας" and not to "θυμιαματων", which would mean that the symbol of incense is used in the same way in both Revelation 5:8 and 8:3-4 and that in the former passage the prayers are symbolised by the golden bowls. Let me know if the following reasoning is correct:

1) Incense in these verses is expressed in Greek in neuter plural - "θυμιαματα".

2) As with some other neuter plural nouns, third person singular verbs are used with it, for example: "καὶ ἐδοθη αὐτωι θυμιαματα πολλα " - not ἐδοθησαν.

3) However, in Revelation 5:8, there is a plural relative pronoun and a plural verb used - "αἵ εἰσιν", which could be an inconsistency compared to the singular "ἐδοθη" in Revelation 8:3-4.

4) What could be an even stronger argument is that "αἵ" is a feminine plural, not a neuter plural which would seem to be required to make the words "εἰσιν αἱ προσευχαὶ των ἁγιων" refer back to "θυμιαματων".

5) We could thus conclude that "αἵ εἰσιν αἱ προσευχαὶ των ἁγιων" refers back to "φιαλας χρυσας" and not to "θυμιαματων".

6) In this way, the incense as a symbol is used in the same way in both verses - as standing for acceptability of prayers achieved through our Lord's sacrifice. In Revelation 5:8 the prayers are symbolised by the golden bowls.

What do you think?

Response #9: 

Your reading of the grammar is excellent . . . in terms of the text you are reading. However, Sinaiticus reads not αἵ εἰσιν αἱ προσευχαὶ but ἁ εἰσιν προσευχαὶ. The reading is incorrect in some other mss. and for some reason the critical texts print what is incorrect. So in Aleph it is neuter and on top of that "the prayers" are just "prayers" – which makes the comparative interpretation more natural to understand since the prayers are now generalized without the "the". The failure of the editions probably has to do with the fact that technically in Classical Greek the verb should be singular with a neuter plural subject, but this is a rule often violated in later Greek and in the NT (Rev.15:4 is another example of this).

Question #10: 

All understood and thank you for making this point, I wouldn't have realised.

I've been using the Analytical Greek New Testament, 5th Edition, with UBS-5 Critical Apparatus and it includes no note on this issue, neither does the hard copy of Metzger's "Textual Commentary on the Greek Testament", but I suppose this is to be expected given that it is based on the same critical apparatus. I have, however, purchased a digital copy of NA28 and I have just checked it - there there is the note.

Thank you for your guidance here. It means a lot being able to verify such points with you, I don't have anywhere else to go. I also understand your point about everyone expecting a singular verb, that's what I expected too (a helpful reference to Revelation 15:4).

A couple of questions on the textual issues:

a) Would you say we can be pretty confident that Sinaiticus reading is correct here since it explains the origin of all others?

b) Are there any others reliable old manuscripts which contain the reading of Sinaiticus? What about Codex Alexandrinus?

c) Which texts are the best for Revelation?

In that case, I will make a point of double symbolism and incense only being used for representative purposes, since it clearly cannot literally stand for prayers both based on Revelation 8:3-4 and the general use in Revelation 5:8.

Response #10: 

You're very welcome indeed. These are issues I have been struggling with all of my life, so you don't need to explain that getting the right answer – or even finding a place where it's in the mix – is not so easy. I believe I'm the one who steered you to Meyer, for example, and he is a prime example of someone who has much information but not very good critical judgment because for the most part the Spirit seems to be absent. In my experience, Christian exegetes tend to fall into one of two camps, namely, either the dead-cold Meyer camp or the hyper-emotional this-is-the-right-interpretation-because-it-feels-good-to-me camp. I have dealt with both of them ad nauseam in my life. The number of people in the middle who listen to the Spirit, are informed by the truth, and do their best to see / understand what the language actually says and means are very few in my experience. Indeed, the number who are even willing to take that correct approach is very small; how much less those who both take it and do what is necessary to bring it to fruition. So I rejoice in you, my friend.

a) The Aleph reading is correct; your point is a good one and I agree that it would seem to explain the other major readings. However, we cannot posit a straight-line descent from Sinaiticus to all other mss. There were too many strains and mss. most of which have perished to ever be confident of reconstructing a schema of transmission in which I personally would ever have confidence. Attempts have been made and are on-going but the proof is in the pudding, and all "results" from positing, e.g., a family of "western witnesses" nearly always end up in producing the wrong readings.

b/c) "A" is not a bad ms. but noticeably inferior to "B" and "C", for example. And of course it's not as simple as all that. Every ms. has mistakes because scribes are not perfect and they make mistakes – just as I always make at least a few typos in every email. Also, whatever Aleph drew from was also not perfect – just closer to the original and better as well than anything else we have. Textual criticism is thus at least as much of an art as it is a science. One has to consider all of the evidence, not the least of which is the meaning, teaching and logic of the text in the particular context. When it comes to the book of Revelation, there are fewer early witnesses, so Aleph, which does have some notable problems and mistakes therein, is of even more importance for that book. In translating Revelation for the Coming Tribulation series, I started with Sinaiticus and considered (I hope) all other available and important evidence when coming to a conclusion in places where there were significant textual issues.

Question #11:  

Hi Dr. Luginbill,

I am reading your studies and I had a few questions regarding the study of angels. Could you please help me to better understand?

How did you get the purpose of angels out Isaiah 43:7 as well as the support scriptures when it appears that the authors are writing to fellow humans?

Response #11: 

Can you give me the reference on this one for "purpose of angels"? I do use this verse to support the purpose of human beings, but not angels, to the best of my remembrance.

Question #12:  

Please see Section 3 under "The Purpose, Creation and Nature of Angels from the Angelology: the Study of Angels."

Response #12: 

The title for the section is "God's purpose in creating angels and mankind" (emphasis added). So what I do there is to use mankind as a parallel proof for angels. We are all moral creatures, so to the extent that the overall strategic purpose for mankind is expressed in scripture, namely, the glory of God (that is the application of the passage you ask about, Isaiah 43:7), we are right in concluding that this is the case with angels as well (specific tactical sub-purposes that have to do with the implementation of the plan of God notwithstanding).

Question #13: 

How did you come to the conclusion that Job 38:4-7 is talking about the recreation of Earth?

Response #13: 

Short answer: the angels are present during the process described here (there are the "morning stars"); for this not to be reconstruction, we would have to posit angels existing before the universe was made; on the other hand, the passage in all detail is entirely consistent with the seven days being a RE-construction.  For details on the exegesis of that passage see the links:  "Syntax of Job 38:7" and "More on Job 38".

Question #14:   

Why has not God recreated the Earth again after the fall of Adam and Eve?

Response #14: 

God could do many things; angels are different from human beings, and their functional purpose in the plan of God has clearly been different. Angels are "saved" from the start (and had to rebel to become "unsaved"); human beings have to be "saved" from a position of being unsaved. This is all explained in the beginning sections of SR 1.

Question #15: 

How did you come to the conclusion that angels want corporeality from the Bible? Did they not have corporeality in Genesis 6?

Response #15: 

There is clearly a difference between what the fallen angels are said to do in Genesis 6 and having an actual physical body – which angels do not have. As I often remark, this lack of corporeality is not the same as being "immaterial vs. material", a rather misleading opposition. After all, angels physically interact with and affect the material world in many ways and on many occasions in scripture (see the link: "the nature of angels").

Question #16:  

Could you help me find more scriptures that support Angels wanting corporeal form? The scriptures provided in the "Satan's Platform" section illustrate the differences between mankind and angelkind.

Response #16: 

On "more scriptures that support Angels wanting corporeal form", this is a deductive argument based upon the totality of what we know of angelic behavior (specifically, that of Satan and his angels) from scripture generally. As is made clear in the beginning of SR 1, for example, we know much less about these matters than we should like to know, but the scriptures do give us the information we have been given and we are right to use it. This is my conclusion based upon the evidence rather than having any proof text to fall back on: the fallen angels had to have had a motive to rebel from God Almighty (an obviously dangerous thing to do). What was it? We know that they have a fascination with human beings and human bodies (e.g., Gen.6:1ff; Lk.11:24-26; 1Pet.1:12), and with bodies generally (Lk.8:30-32). This (having a corporeal body) is the one thing angels don't have, so it seems reasonable to postulate that this was the one thing Satan was able to offer them – and that is backed up by their behavior (so far as scripture records it) ever since.

Question #17: 

It is implied from the information that corporeality seems to be the primary reason for the group of angels that follow Satan. I know from the Bible that there are multiple types of Sin for Mankind. Could there be multiple types of sin for Angels?

Response #17:

In terms of angelic sin, their involvement in the activities above is definitely a sin (cf. Jude 1:6-7), but the "key sin" was rebelling against God. Human beings come back to the Lord by means of His grace provision in Jesus Christ and through believing in Him. Angels, on the other hand, had to individually depart from Him so as not to be "saved" as we would say. That is an act of will that determines their eternal future, the fundamental choice akin to faith in Christ (or lack thereof) in the case of human beings. What the fallen angels have done ever since throwing in their lot with the devil is nothing but sin upon sin and evil upon evil. All sin is lawlessness (1Jn.3:4), that is, opposing and/or violating the will of God – and everything the demons do in following their angelic master is in opposition to the will and plan of God.

Question #18: 

Hello Professor,

I wanted to ask you about Hebrews 2:2. We have already discussed the issue of the Law being "ordained by angels" (Acts 7:53) or "through angels" (Galatians 3:19), but it is a difficult passage.

Hebrews 2:2 (NASB)
2 For if the word spoken through angels proved unalterable, and every transgression and disobedience received a just penalty,

I know you take δι ἀγγελων as referring to the multiple manifestations of the Angel of the Lord – the pre-incarnate Christ, but there are two difficulties which I am at this point struggling to resolve:

1) Whether we can take ἀγγελων as not referring to multiple angels, but rather multiple manifestations of the same angel. There is one commentary (Whedon - one of only two commentaries out of probably tens of others I've seen that actually does interpret this verse in the same way and it was a pleasant surprise that they don't submit to this view of the author quoting some rabbinic traditions) which sees this designation as "idiomatically plural":

This difficulty, which affects the very foundations of the argument of this epistle, has been met in various ways. In our note on Acts 7:53, we have understood angels to be the real designation, idiomatically plural, for the one Angel of the covenant, by whom the word of the Sinaitic Law was truly spoken. The inferiority of the old dispensation would then consist in its transient Angel-form mediatorship instead of the permanent and personal form of the incarnate Son.

2) Paul seems to be moving here from the lesser to the greater in his argument - “if the word spoken through angels proved unalterable...” - but if he meant our pre-incarnate Lord, then it’s hard for me to see how this could be considered “lesser”. Perhaps in the sense that it still wasn’t a direct revelation of the Lord given by Himself (verse 3), but that could be taken to go against the his contrast between the Lord and angels that he is discussing in the entire first chapter, as here the contrast would no longer be between Christ and angels, but rather between the pre-incarnate Christ and the incarnate Christ. I'm not sure, this is difficult. This is also how Whedon explains it (above) and the second commentary of the two I mentioned (Haldane's):

The Apostle had previously established the infinite superiority of the Son of God to angels, and hence he argues the inferiority of the Law to the Gospel,—the Law having been promulgated by God in the temporary character of an angel, implying the temporary nature of the dispensation; the Gospel by the Son of God who abideth for ever, and who has said, "Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my Word shall not pass away."Matthew 24:35.

These are the two issues I wanted to consult with you regarding this interpretation. To be honest, I cannot see any other way to explain the passage, but I wonder why use plural of ἀγγελων instead of singular - and the same goes for Galatians 3:19 - when one Angel was meant and then secondly how this interpretation fits into the context of the superiority of our Lord over angels - which in this case would be superiority of Christ over His own self - only pre-incarnate.

In the grace of our Lord,

Response #18: 

If Paul had said "THE Angel", it would have caused the very confusion you are struggling with in Hebrews since as you note the purpose is to demonstrate the incarnate Son as the superior means of communication:

(1) God, from antiquity having communicated to our fathers in the prophets at many times and in many ways, (2) has in these last days communicated to us in a Son, [the One] whom He has appointed heir of all things, [the One] through whom He created the universe.
Hebrews 1:1-2

The "angels", whatever one wants to make of this word, were part of the "many times and many ways" which were clearly inferior – not because of anything wrong with angels (far less THE Angel) but for want of directness of revelation as you suggest (being symbolic through the Law rather than direct in teaching about Christ having come in person).

So I agree with your conclusion that "our" conclusion is the only possible conclusion.

By saying it the way he says it, Paul is 1) not incorrect in his designation, but 2) not directly opposing the veiled Son to the unveiled Son, but rather is opposing the revealed Christ to the Law which only represented the Son . . . and which was given by non-direct means on many occasions (= the "many times and many ways" of Heb.1:1).

So why does Paul even bring up "angels"? Because this is the point of the argument in this section of Hebrews, the superiority of the Son to angels.

We might expand the translation thus to emphasize this deliberate contrast:

(2) For if the Word given through angelic representations was steadfast, and every transgression and violation received appropriate punishment, (3) how shall we escape if we neglect a deliverance of such consequence? [Especially since that Word] which received its initial expression through the Lord Himself has now been confirmed to us by those who heard [Him] (4) through God [the Father Himself] bearing witness to it through signs and wonders and various [other] demonstrations of His power, and with distributions of the Holy Spirit (i.e., spiritual gifts) according to His will?
Hebrews 2:2-4

Your friend in Jesus Christ our dear Lord and Savior,

Bob L.

Question #19:

You wrote (from Angelology):

Many passages stress the spiritual (and hence non-material) nature of angels (Heb.1:7; 1:14; 2:14-16 [esp. v.16]). This radical difference from human (and animal) kind helps to explain how angels are occasionally called "gods" (i.e., having more in common with the spirituality of God than the materiality of Man: Ps.8:5; 82:1 & 6).

Do you take Psalm 82:1 and 82:6 as referring to angels? I thought this Psalm referred to unjust judgments of men, also based on John 10:34.

Response #19: 

It's both. Here is what I wrote about that (in Angelic Issues VI):

As to the interpretation of Psalm 82, my take is that Asaph is comparing human judges / rulers (who not only have self-determination but also the sovereign power of imposing their will on others) to God and His angels as an example of how they should be carrying out their God-given responsibility (i.e., in the justice which God always employs).

Question #20: 

Psalm 82 - could we thus conclude that the primary meaning is the human judges, but the word 'elohiym is used so as to draw a direct comparison of human judges to God and His angels based on the possession of will?

Response #20: 

I would say rather that the (deliberate) first impression is of the Lord holding court with the angels (as in Job chapters one and two) – and then we come to find out it applies to human rulers as well. The word 'el means "mighty one", where 'elohiym is its plural referring to God (a plural of majesty) or occasionally "gods" (which to the degree that they are anything are fallen angels masquerading as deities). The "mightiest thing" that any creature can have is free will, so human judges and rulers who have the authority and power to wield that might for the benefit and detriment of others are definitely "mighty", acting in God's place – so their poor performance is made an issue of by Him in this Psalm.

Question #21:  

Hello Dr Luginbill,

Thank you for a heads up on the new material. I have been reading your commentary for a long time and appreciate, I hope fully but probably not, all the time and effort you put into this.

I noticed you associated Rev 12:4 (one third of the stars) with the Church when most commentators associate with fallen angels. I’m sure you explain this in your other series on the tribulation but I don’t recall seeing it before. Time to go digging back through you earlier works.

Thanks again for providing all the free, to us anyway, thought provoking material.


Response #21: 

You're very welcome, my friend.

I take Revelation 12:4 as having a dual application (just like Is.14 and Ezek.28), since it applies equally to believers at the time and to fallen angels in pre-human time. As I expand the translation . . .

And [the dragon's] (i.e., the devil's) tail swept away a third of the stars of heaven (i.e., both fallen angels and fallen believers) and threw them to the earth (i.e., their rebellion or apostasy and consequent association with them in their fall).
Revelation 12:4a

Satan is the subject in any case, and he is responsible for the casting down of fallen angels previously and also of the apostate former believers contemporaneously. Both believers and angels are described as stars, so the passage invites us to see the historical incident as in view as being the precedent for the eschatological incident (the methodology of deception being common to both as well).

You'll find more details at the link: The Great Apostasy

Yours in our dear Lord and Savior Jesus Christ,

Bob L.

Question #22:  

Dr. Luginbill, in the first G-mail I sent you I was concerned about the discrepancy between the Masoretic and Septuagint's rendering of the number of years each of the descendants of the son's of Shem lived after the flood as recorded in Genesis 11:12-24. Your answer was most instructive to me as you demonstrated the problem with the Greek numbering system as unreliable and difficult to translate especially when dealing with fragmented text. Do you consider the Masoretic text Superior and more reliable in ALL aspects compared to the Greek Septuagint in it's rendering of the original or earliest sources of the OT? The reason I ask is because the work of Dr. Michael Heiser was brought to my attention recently and being degreed in ancient manuscript and Semitic languages he did his doctorial thesis on Psalm 82 and Deut.32:8 in which he makes a strong case that the MT rendering of Deut.32:8d "...sons of Israel" is a false rendering of the original language and that the Septuagint has the correct rendering as "...sons of God".

I have attached Heiser's argument on this text and would greatly appreciate your view on the same text because of your expertise in these languages and your great stewardship of the word of God.

Response #22: 

Good to hear from you again, my friend, and thanks much for your kind words.

I've bumped into the Heiser thesis before. Here is what I've written in the past about his ideas on this passage and the theory upon which his emendation of the text is based (the entire discussion may be found at the link: Angelic Issues VI):

There were only a few brief comments in the blue boxes. I take it that the argument runs that because there is a "council of the mighty ones" in scripture, and because some English version translate this as "gods", that for that reason the Bible is a hodgepodge. A pretty tenuous argument. In fact, even if 'elohiym in the plural is translated "gods", this is clearly a different category than 'elohiym in the plural which is far more often translated as God. We are "gods" too in the lower case sense of having the image of God, free will, the ability to choose as if we were sovereign – and so are the angels (about whom these verses are actually written, of course). The problem with retaining the same word for both occurrences is that it gives people like this the wrong idea; the advantage is that it preserves the analogous vocabulary in English from Hebrew and also Greek. But clearly enough there is no "Canaanite mythology" here – such texts do not even exist. Misunderstanding the essential theological point above is common enough, however, even in more conservative circles.

I perused his text anew from your attachment (I don't pretend to have labored over all twenty-seven single spaced and deeply footnoted pages), and I see little reason to change the opinion given voice to above. The last bit is critical. Heiser is attempting to manipulate the biblical text based upon appealing to pagan mythology – about which we know next to nothing apart from the Bible (there are a few archaeological artifacts and of course the corpora of Ugarit et al. which are impossible to date accurately or line up chronologically with the biblical texts with any degree of accuracy). But even if we had oodles of information, "so what?". The Bible is inspired by God. It is not a hodgepodge of syncretic religious ideas borrowed from Canaanite religious practices and then homogenized centuries later by a unified scribal tradition. That is hogwash.

Christians, believers, understand that the Bible is the Word of God. The text we have of it may "only" be 99% perfect, but it is so close to being perfect that a scholar with a high view of inspiration can almost always figure out the other 1% with study. That has been my consistent experience. For Heiser to be correct, we would have to be dealing with a man-made document that is more conflicted in its origin than the most conflicted classical texts (Homer, for instance, would be practically "gospel" by comparison if Heiser were correct).

There are other problems too. The Torah is the oldest part of the Bible, obviously, written in the 15 century B.C. The LXX was translated from it some 1,200 year later! So how can the twelve century later text possibly be a witness to the much older one? That is impossible – unless we are assuming that in 3rd century B.C. there was a "better" version of the Hebrew text available. Problem is, there is ZERO evidence that such a thing existed. The Qumran texts were inferior and cheaper "popular" versions and were subject to deliberate corruption in assimilation to the weird theories of the Essenes – who were all about angels and non-biblical speculation about them (the forerunners of the Jewish Gnostics). So while there are text from Qumran which do support the LXX version, the likelihood is that material from the Essenes is at the root of that LXX's alternative reading rather than the other way around. And in any case, the differences between all three, MT, LXX and Q, are not nearly as large or significant as H would need them to be.

Heiser thinks that the idea of God portioning up the world "according to the number of the sons of Israel" is unworkable. Hasn't he read the Bible? Alternatively, he thinks "sons of God" = angels (or in his view "pagan deities") makes perfect sense in the context of the pagan religion of the Canaanites. It well may – but this is the Bible, not a pagan Canaanite text.

Just because someone is a biblical scholar with credentials, doesn't mean that they are a believer in Jesus Christ. And without the Holy Spirit, no one can really understand the first thing about the Bible. Heiser may be a believer (who knows?), but a position of demeaning the authority of scripture suggests spiritual infancy – if not outright unbelief.

Yours in our dear Lord and Savior Jesus Christ,

Bob L.

Question #23: 

Thank you so much for your sound response. I think this is why I was attracted to your material in the first place is your super high view of scripture, a view that I was born into myself being "born again not of corruptible seed but of incorruptible seed which is the living and abiding word of God".

To bother you with one (3) more questions Dr. Luginbill if I may, could you briefly explain:

1. What textual manuscript of the OT did the disciples and Jesus have access too?

2. What textual source was the MT translated from?

3. When was the MT translated?

Thank you in advance for taking time from your busy schedule to answer these questions that I am sure are elementary from your perspective and I probably should have known this stuff by now myself.

God Bless

Response #23: 

You're most welcome, my friend.

As to your latest questions:

1) This is a complicated issue and to some degree unknowable but it seems clear to me that not only was the LXX available but the Hebrew text was as well, because both are quoted from in the NT (the LXX more so). There is also the problem that the text of the LXX has a most convoluted history itself, so that what we have today cannot be known for certain to be precisely what was possessed at the time. See the links:

What version did Jesus quote?

OT quotes in the NT

2) The Masoretic text is the name given to the basic Hebrew text which has come down to us. There are variations in the various mss. of the MT but in less than 1% of that text in my rough estimation (and usually most mss. will go in the same direction). These mss. were transcribed from earlier mss. going back to the original "autograph" (as the first copy is called) of each book.

3) Into what language? The LXX or Greek translation is the earliest translation of the Hebrew text, dating to approximately 200-300 B.C.

Yours in our dear Lord and Savior Jesus Christ,

Bob L.

Question #24:   

Then I looked up, and there before me were four horns. I asked the angel who was speaking to me, “What are these?” He answered me, “These are the horns that scattered Judah, Israel and Jerusalem.” Then the Lord showed me four craftsmen. I asked, “What are these coming to do?” He answered, “These are the horns that scattered Judah so that no one could raise their head, but the craftsmen have come to terrify them and throw down these horns of the nations who lifted up their horns against the land of Judah to scatter its people.”
Zechariah 1:20-21

I am seeking understanding. If you have links on the four horns and four craftsmen passage, please send them to me. I will read them because I respect you.

Response #24: 

The horns are the world powers which assailed Israel (#4 is historical Rome which will be revived after its destruction during the Tribulation). The craftsmen are angels of high rank (archangels) who lead the divine counter-attack which laid these powers low for their evil (cf. Is.10:5-19).

In Jesus our dear Savior,

Bob L.

Question #25: 

Hi Bob,

I wanted to begin by saying that I greatly appreciate you taking the time out of your schedule to answer my questions. I have always been the inquisitive type who just wants to know everything about a subject that I love so much (i.e., the bible). The same bible scholar mentioned in my previous email said that fallen angels are not demons, and that tradition has made people into believing they are the same. He made the distinction that angels remain angels, even if they're fallen. Just like we are still human even if our nature changes. Here are those distinctions that he made:

Angels: Can appear in human form.
Demons: Do not appear in human form.

Angels: Can take people by their hands and can eat.
Demons: are powerless unless they have permission to use something that has a body to operate in.

He said that the demons are the spirits which were wiped out during the great flood. He said that Genesis 6 CANNOT refer to the "sons of Seth" because if that were so, then why did God wipe out godly men in the flood (sons of Seth)? And why aren't there daughters of Seth? Moreover, he said that the bible says that Noah was "perfect" in his generations, and the Hebrew word for perfect means without "physical" blemish, and that implied that the rest of the human race was polluted with fallen angelic DNA or something like that. I've also heard the belief that Satan is not an angel, but a cherub, and a cherub is not an angel. They cited Revelation where it makes a distinction between "class of beings" worshiping God.

1. Humans
2. Angels
3. Living Creatures (cherubs and seraphs)

Therefore if Satan is a cherub, then he is a beast or a living creature, and not an angel. Some would argue that Jesus said, "Satan and HIS angels", therefore Satan is an angel. But it also says Satan having HIS ministers who masquerade as ministers of righteousness. He said, Satan and his "angels", and not Satan and his "demons". He also spoke of when Paul talked about the great deception and said that it is not "a" lie - but "the" lie (definite article), and that no one knows what this great lie is. I always assumed that it was just the antichrist deceiving the whole world into believing that he is God. I don't see a greater lie than that. He also said that the antichrist is a nephilim, something similar to what you wrote on your website and in your emails. He also said that there are no such things as aliens, and that those people (even Christians) who claime to be "abducted" by aliens are in fact being taken by "demons" masquerading as aliens. There was a lot of testimonies about Christians who have encountered these creatures and called upon the name of Jesus Christ, and these creatures posing as aliens left IMMEDIATELY. And the pope believes in aliens and this will play a role in the end times delusion.

One last question: what exactly is "transhumanism"? is this related to theology? I did some research and was wondering if the locusts in the bottomless pit are mechanical using technology, or are they actually real demons in some sort of body suit using fallen angelic technology? There's also the word "arrows" in the Old Testament in Jeremiah. The bible scholar said that the Hebrew language suggests that the word arrow means that it is the arrow itself that is intelligent, and not the one yielding it; and he compared that to missles and bullets of today? Is this true? Thanks!

God Bless,

Response #25: 

As in any other writing, the Bible employs synonyms. The fact that Christians are called, elect, believers, saints, etc., does not mean that these three things are completely different. They are not. They merely describe different aspects of our saved state. The fact that the Bible uses the phrase "Satan and his angels" does not mean that fallen angels are not demons. That is merely an alternative designation for the same things. A fallen angel is a demon and vice-versa. Where is there any verse in scripture that contrasts the two as different? Note also that "demon" is a New Testament word. It is generally reserved for fallen angels who have possessed someone. That makes sense given the nature and use of the Greek word where a daimon is a lesser divinity (not negative in the secular Greek world) which would inspire a poet or a priestess or some other "special" person. Socrates, notably, said he "got" all of his insight from his daimon.

The phrase "fallen angel" also does not appear in scripture. Angels who follow the devil are still angels, whether or not they are at liberty (some are in the Abyss), and whether or not their role in the present conflict involves fighting as front-line soldiers (seeking to possess individual human beings), or something else. You can find out more regarding the particulars in the Satanic Rebellion series (link), parts 1, 4 and 5 especially for questions such as this (see also the link: "BB 2A: Angelology"). Cherubs et al. refer to angelic ranks. There is much in the series above about angelic ranks for both fallen and elect angels – but being of a different rank does not make a person a different being. Generals are much more august than corporals – but both are human beings.

There is so much leaven in this report that it is impossible to extract the tiny bits of truth. But that is the essence of false teaching, namely, to graft all manner of lies and deceit upon a skeleton of truth. But a little leaven leavens the whole lump, as the Bible tells us – how much more so such a great deal of leaven! So I can't disentangle it all for you. The fact that the person is correct about there are no alien beings and correct about the fact antichrist is the seed of Satan (that is in the Bible, after all: Gen.3:15) does not change the fact that, e.g., spirits can't be wiped out (not even spirits of animals: Eccl.3:18-21).

Whatever "transhumanism" may be thought to be (often the notion of evolution of people into something else) is not biblical (not to mention the fact that it is ridiculous to any person with an ounce of common sense, especially spiritual common sense).

On the fallen angels who exit the Abyss and take on the form of locust, note that they only do so in leaving the Abyss (the dust is transformed into these rudimentary bodies; see the link: "The first woe").

On arrows, clearly, they do not have a mind of their own any more than bullets today do (though then as now people sometimes speak of them in that way). Did you have a particular passage in mind?

Finally, an observation. I recognize that you are very interested in the Bible, and I appreciate your kind words. However, "Smorgasbord-ing" is a dubious route to spiritual maturity. Surfing the internet and paying attention to all manner of "Bible teachers" is not going to produce anything positive even if it may seem "fun". Why not? Because most of what you will find out there is either partially or mostly untrue. And here is another problem. By ceding a measure of authority to all manner of "teachers", one is actually ceding authority to no one but oneself. And no one can grow without the truth . . . but the truth has to actually be heard (not things that are not true) and believed (but how can a person believe two or three or four contradictory things at once?).

For someone training for a teaching ministry, exposure to a certain amount of false teaching is necessary just as doctors have to study diseases. Some of this sort of thing is probably not going to be fatally toxic for Christians generally but will most often do more harm than good: for a Christian who is trying to grow up, the best thing is to search until a good, solid, reliable teaching ministry is found, and then given one's primary attention to that ministry, listening to or reading what that ministry has to offer, and giving it the benefit of the doubt whenever there are questions – once it has been affirmed in the Spirit that "this is the teaching ministry for me!" Ichthys is certainly not the only reliable source of truth on the planet (though I do hope and believe it is one of them). I also highly recommend pastor Curtis Omo's "Bible Academy" (at the link). I can't recommend the source you are quoting from here.

Yours in our dear Lord and Savior Jesus Christ,

Bob L.

Question #26:  

Dear Teacher,

I imagine that you got even busier than ever. I am praying for you everyday again (and very thankful to have recovered up to the point of being able to do so again). [personal details omitted]

I was also asked this in another conversation:

"Okay. So this means the flood happened to save the lives of Noah and his family then. How does the Bible support this?"

I thought that the answer should be intuitive to anyone who read the Bible but apparently it wasn't to this man who presents himself as a Bible teacher. Among the passages I offered in response (none of which pleased him) was 1 Peter 3:20. I remembered when I gave it that the language there has always had me wondering a bit. Could there be a double meaning there saying both that Noah and his family were rescued FROM the Flood and that they were rescued BY the Flood? Or does "brought safely through the water" restrict all reasonable interpretation to the former?

Next, I want to know if there is a way to reconcile Satan's appearance in Heaven in Job 1,2 and Revelation 12:10. My understanding, I believe, from your teachings and from my reading of the Bible is that Satan goes to Heaven when he is summoned along with the rest of the angels. I assume that to be because he is still treated as a member of God's Family, albeit a rebellious one. I also thought that he did in the capacity of the ruler of this world, although an illegitimate one (although because of unbelievers who side with him, he maintains some sort of legitimate claim like the one he made to the Lord during the temptations in the wilderness).

1. Are these understandings correct?

2a. Why does Rev 12:10 say that he accuses the brethren day and night before God if he is only there whenever he is summoned?

2b. Could it be because this is said at the midpoint of the Tribulation so that during the Tribulation, he and the other angels are summoned to stand before God for the entire duration of the Tribulation minus the time that the rebellious ones are finally expelled from Heaven?

2c. If #2b is correct, how do the fallen angels who attack humans during the Tribulation get to do so when they are compelled to assemble in Heaven? Should we assume that during this long assembly they are free to leave and perform duties like their attacks and then return again? Is this similar in any way to 1 Kings 22:19-23? That is, can it be said that Satan and his fellow rebels are sent out just like the elect angels to do what they wish to do anyway but within limits set by God during the Tribulation and return to the assembly until the midpoint at which time they are all expelled and confined to the Earth?

Your student in the Lord Jesus Christ

Response #26: 

Yes, it has been busy, but the Lord has been bringing me safely through all troubles.

The way the Lord works things out IS absolutely amazing! I have learned – but still have to constantly remind myself of the truth – that when things "go wrong" it is really the Lord working things out perfectly for things to "go right" the way He intends in accord with His perfect plan. Learning to see this while our emotions (and eyes and ears and often also our friends) are telling us something different, is a large part of what seeing with the eyes of faith, what true godliness, is all about: seeing it His way, not the way the world sees things.

As to the flood, "how does the Bible support" that the flood saved Noah and his family? Noah and his family lived; the others did not. Your citation and explanation of 1st Peter 3:20 is perfect. There is also this:

"Just as it was in the days of Noah, so also will it be in the days of the Son of Man. People were eating, drinking, marrying and being given in marriage up to the day Noah entered the ark. Then the flood came and destroyed them all."
Luke 17:26-27 NIV

By faith Noah, when warned about things not yet seen, in holy fear built an ark to save his family. By his faith he condemned the world and became heir of the righteousness that is in keeping with faith.
Hebrews 11:7 NIV

Add to all this the Lord's motivation for destroying the world:

The LORD saw how great the wickedness of the human race had become on the earth, and that every inclination of the thoughts of the human heart was only evil all the time. The LORD regretted that he had made human beings on the earth, and his heart was deeply troubled. So the LORD said, “I will wipe from the face of the earth the human race I have created—and with them the animals, the birds and the creatures that move along the ground—for I regret that I have made them.”
Genesis 6:5-7 NIV

We don't have to get into the corruption and pollution of the human line from the angelic infiltration with people who have an objection such as you mention. If they want to quibble about common sense points that any grade school student would see just by reading the Bible, they're not going to appreciate somewhat deeper teachings. I think your policy of NOT debating people on their own terms is the perfect one. That never works, in any case.

As to the other questions:

1 - 2b) There is much we are not told about the ground rules for the devil and his angels at present. We know that they sometimes violate them, pushing the envelope and testing God. That is what happened in Genesis six. The incarceration of the offending fallen angels for doing what they did has put a damper on any wholesale attempt to create such nephilim, but no doubt the demons are continually testing the limits (and suffering imprisonment when they go too far). Believers are not allowed to be possessed, and unbelievers seem to have to acquiesce at least initially. We do know that the devil (and no doubt also some of his subordinates) does appear before God to lay charges against believers – he (they) tempts us, then demands punishment when we yield to such temptation. There are also apparently assemblies which the devil attends (possibly also some of his subordinates). The place of warfare is this world, the earth, not the third heaven. During the Tribulation (at its midpoint), the devil and his followers will be cast down and restricted to earth entirely, but at present there apparently is a truce beyond this world. The above fits the evidence the Bible provides.

2c) I cannot say from scripture that the assemblies are mandatory (in the sense that there is compulsion of the evil ones to attend), that all attend, or that there will be any such assemblies during the Tribulation. It is clear that during these seven years, the devil will mount his major effort, pulling out all the stops and devoting every last resource available to him in this final vain attempt to thwart the plan of God. Missing assemblies would seem to be the least of the risks he will take.

I'm very pleased at how things are working out for you, my friend. I'm praying for a good, quick, safe move for you, and for things to continue to trend upward in every way.

Your friend in Jesus Christ our dear Lord and Savior,

Bob L.

P.S.:  If you haven't noticed or already done so, please check out the list of wonderful ministry offerings on the Special Topics page, including postings by Bartek Sylwestrzak (*series on Mary now complete!), Christian Vassallo, John Jackson, "Bible Readings by Emma", Bible Reading Log by Christian Vassallo (helps for reading through the English Bible),  The Holocaust: A Biblical and Historical Examination (Future Implications) by Fred London, the Expanded Index to topics found at Ichthys, and, most recently, Foundational Principles, by Odii Ariwodo.

Special Prayer Requests

A special word of thanks to all who have been praying for this ministry.  The Lord has brought about a great deliverance for me and mine.  I am forever grateful to Him, and also to all of you who have been faithfully interceding for me and for this ministry.

The Lord is my strength and my song, and He has become my salvation.
Exodus 15:2

Addendum: 12/24/16:  I also want to thank everyone who has been praying for my family and especially for my mother.  She passed away yesterday morning at the age of ninety-six.  Considering the sad shape she was in, it was a blessing that the Lord took her when He did.  She died "full of years" in the company of those who loved her, and now she is with the Lord – and nothing is better than that (Phil.1:23; Rev.7:17; 21:4).

***Updated Urgent Prayer Request:  Please be in prayer for our brother Vau who has just received a preliminary diagnosis for neuroendocrine cancer, a rare cancer that combines with different cancers from the colon and the liver (in his case). His loss would be a heavy blow to his wife and children. But we know that nothing is impossible for the Lord.

Update from Vau's wife (5/13/19)

Hello Brother Bob,

This is Vau’s wife.  I just wanted to solicit prayers for Vau as he speaks very highly of you. Vau was told on 4/30 that he has a couple of weeks to live and he is receiving home hospice. We are trusting and believing God for a Miraculous Miracle!!

Sincerely In Christ,

More Prayer Requests:

  • For Walter's son Josh, in need of surgery for a defective heart valve.

  • For Lowell, for success for proton therapy for his prostate cancer.

  • *For our friend Gaurav, for encouragement, health, and material deliverance. [n.b., Gaurav was the first one on this list years ago; he writes that he is still "hanging in" and staying faithful to the Lord, but he and his family are in greater material need than ever; please remember them in your prayers]
  • *For Shontel, for the means and opportunity to get out of a debilitating and dangerous domestic situation ASAP.
  • For David's wife who is entering hospice [*update: our friend's wife has gone to be with the Lord; please pray for his comfort].
  • For Kevin for successful brain tumor surgery.
  • For Bob P. for help in healing a painful skin disorder (praise here as the condition has been somewhat ameliorated, but please keep him in prayer); *and Bob wife, Debbie, just diagnosed with invasive ductile breast cancer *[update: treatments successful!  Please continue prayer as some continued therapy necessary for some time].
  • For comfort for Jon and his family in the loss of his father.  Thanks to all who have been praying for him.  Jon reports convincing evidence that his dad was indeed saved before the end.  Praise the Lord!
  • For Abby for success and blessing in her new efforts in ministry, and for her cousin Danny's health. *Please also pray for her health, strength and perseverance in stressful and challenging circumstances.
  • For our friend Bartek, for the recovery of his health, and also for success in gaining citizenship in the UK [*praise here as his petition was successful!]. *Also, please pray for empowerment and help for his father in his evangelization ministry.
  • For help and support for Yuhanna and his family in the midst of continuing trial and testing, and for the salvation of his wider family. And please pray in particular for financial help and help for a better job for his wife in the midst of this crisis.  **[update: 12/18: please pray for success for a critical initiative that would overturn much wrong and right the situation for our friend and other affected; *next 60 days are crucial]. *Yuhanna also asks for prayer for his wife and children find a sound biblically based church and for the Lord to display the fruit of The Spirit in their lives; and also for Charlotte to find employment.
  • For Ramsey, for success in his job application process [praise here! please keep him in your prayers].
  • *For the empowerment of our friend Curt's ministry; for his health, the health of his family [praise for good news here - please pray for Curt's own health], and for his finances. *Critical: please also pray for immediate deliverance from false accusations.
  • *For our brother Abishai's help and guidance in preparing for ministry, as well as for his healing and help with his business to provide for his family's basic needs, and for the health and healing of his young daughter [praise here!].  Please also pray for his brother, a believer, to be led to the truth on important issues of doctrine. And please also pray for the health of his wife and children, and of his father in law.  Please also pray for the protection of the family living very close to Sri Lanka.  And also please pray for two Hindu's our brother is trying to lead to Christ: Sudhir and Suraj.

  • For our friend Betty's help and deliverance [praise the Lord for answered prayer!].
  • For our friend Carol's recovery, encouragement and for help in her professional life.
  • For our friend Vau's father for healing from critical illness, and for Vau's encouragement [praise here!].
  • For our friend John's family's deliverance from cult influence [praise for some good news here, but some members are still entrapped]. *Please also pray for John's health and that of his wife as well.

  • For our friend Kathleen's recovery from a terrible accident.
  • For our friend Steve for strength, protection, providence and deliverance – more needful now than ever.
  • For help and deliverance for our friend Cindy's daughter.
  • *For our friend Brittany's healing from cancer, and for her spiritual recovery and encouragement.
  • For our friend Ken and his family's protection from persecution for seeking the truth.
  • For the family of Jewel, a recently martyred pastor in Bangladesh (please see the link).
  • Ken Young's ministry and for his health (please see the link).
  • For Christian congregations being persecuted in Sri Lanka (please see the link).
  • For our friend Neal's help in and healing from devastating illness.
  • *[For young Joel, a newborn with Zellweger syndrome . . .]; from the family:  little Omari Joel passed on June 4, 2018 at the age of 5 ½. There are no words to express our gratitude for your prayers, and your love will always be remembered. Your prayers were blessed with love, grace, and an eternal relationship with Jesus. May God continue to bless you each and every day, and thank you for bringing our family into your family. Amen. Many blessings, keep family in your prayers!!!
  • For our friend Mark's successful surgery and swift recovery.
  • *For the healing, blessing, encouragement and vindication of our brother, Nihal.  Please also protect him and his family and church family from the recent troubles in Sri Lanka.
  • *For our friend Mike's encouragement and God's blessing on his livelihood to provide for his family (urgently needed at present!).
  • For Helen's healing from cancer and for her comfort in the loss of her family members.
  • For pastor Don's wife Jessie's healing from cancer.
  • For Clyde's encouragement and deliverance in severe testing.
  • For John, for help in getting more hours or work or a better job.
  • For our friend John's help in coping with a difficult medical condition (cadasil).
  • For our friend Paul's father-in-law, for deliverance from cancer.
  • For healing for Leigh's dad's health (praise for betterment here - she thanks everyone for their prayers), for her daughter's healing from hypothyroidism and celiac disease, and for encouragement and help for her.
  • *For the salvation of Judah's friend, and for help for Judah in overcoming spiritual obstacles and for help in preparing for ministry.
  • For Tom for help in the development of all skills necessary for an apologetics ministry combating atheism in particular. *Please also pray for the salvation of his grandmother.

  • For the deliverance of Michael's wife from extreme charismatic influence.
  • For Michael's deliverance from debt, stress and unwanted conflict – special prayer help needed here as things are getting worse.
  • For our friend Karl's mother's salvation.
  • For our friend Oscar's continued spiritual growth and help in securing suitable employment in spite of serious satanic opposition.
  • For Richard Khum and Mission Training School in Myanmar (richardlkhum@gmail.com).
  • For Ashley and help with her marriage.
  • For Wen and family in a new area without suitable Bible teaching.
  • For Zach's healing, deliverance and comfort from severe cult abuse and control, and to be led into God’s truth.
  • For the salvation of Danny's mother and for her healing in extreme pain; for healing in body and mind, and for his protection and blessing on his family and for their reconciliation.  Please also pray for Danny's living situation, and also for his job situation where he is experiencing persecution.
  • For deliverance for John's friend from the JW heresy.
  • For our friend who wished to remain nameless, for her protection and the protection of her children from a hostile and aggressive "ex".
  • For the deliverance of Jay's friend from the influence of a noxious cult.
  • For our friend Anna and her family's comfort in the loss of her daughter, and for the comfort, encouragement and salvation of her two children.
  • For our friend Sheila's healing from the effects of a chronic condition.
  • For our friend Sandra, suffering from multiply myeloma [praise here! please keep her in your prayers].
  • For David's wife who is recovering from back surgery.
  • For friends Lynette, Angie, Marcia, Dan and Jeffery, all of whom are presently under heavy spiritual pressures and in need of prayer and encouragement.
  • For our newly converted brother Jacob in India, for healing for him and for his daughter, for his material needs, and for the salvation of his parents.
  • For our friend Tommy, for a roof over his head.
  • For the protection of Crystal and her family.
  • For Billy's mother to be led into all of God's truth.
  • ***For Resi in transitioning from Roman Catholicism and for help in serious financial difficulties.  Please also pray for our friend and his cooperative to be successful.  Prayers also please for family who does not share his faith. And please pray for our friend's protection from persecution in a place where standing up for the truth and not following the crowd results in suspicion and shunning.
  • For Kim and her family, and for her daughter's deliverance from a cult.
  • For Leigh – she thanks everyone for their prayers (the Lord has taken her father home in a peaceful way).
  • For Ryan's salvation.
  • For Brian's healing from sleep apnea [praise here!], protection on a hazardous job [praise here too!], and continued spiritual growth.  *Please also pray for help with potential heart problems.

  • For help for Steven in successfully carrying a heavy and difficult academic load in preparing to minister to the body of Christ.
  • For the opening of Daniel's heart to the gospel and his salvation in Jesus Christ.
  • For Becca's family, for help with serious medical and financial troubles (praise here for answered prayers!).
  • For the salvation of John's two unbelieving sons.
  • For Charles' granddaughter, for the perseverance of her faith and for her deliverance from drug addiction, and for the salvation and spiritual growth of another granddaughter.
  • For Bogdan's salvation and receptiveness to the truth.
  • For Clinton, for spiritual growth [praise here for completing his degree and landing a good job!].
  • *For Chris, for the preservation of his job in the midst of budget cuts [praise here! Victory! Job retained!], and for his health and protection on the job. *Please also pray for Lisa's health.
  • For the salvation of Mitch's wife.
  • *For help for Sam's recovery from cancer and deliverance from extreme insomnia.  *Please also pray for the salvation of his son in law.
  • For Cary, for encouragement in persecution abroad, and for health and strength.
  • For Ania, for her salvation and spiritual growth in the truth.
  • *For our friend Odii, for help in finding a way to make a living without compromising his principles in a difficult field (social media). *Please pray for the success of his business as a base for ministering the Word.   **Please also pray for his fiancée and her family for protection from violence in the place where they live.

  • For Alex' and Chris' mother, for her salvation and the opening of her heart to the truth.
  • For our friend Carmen, for the protection of her granddaughters, and her encouragement and strength in negotiating a difficult trial; for her boy Josh's recovery and for encouragement for him to turn to the Lord for help.
  • *For Amber's continued spiritual growth and encouragement, and for her healing.  Please also pray for the salvation of her grandmother.
  • *For Sande's encouragement and perseverance in proclaiming and teaching the Word in the face of significant resistance. Please pray also for his health and the health of his mother and grandmother (suffering from aplastic anaemia and spinal stenosis respectively).

  • For Christine, for help and protection in a longstanding debate with several JWs, and for Melina and Sandra, for their salvation and deliverance from the WT.
  • For Christian, for the prospering of his consultancy in order to have more time to prepare for and engage in ministry [praise here!  please continue to pray for the success of his business].
  • For Kim, for help for her and her family in struggling with severe financial pressures and for moving forward with spiritual growth.
  • For Brooke, for peace and blessing her marriage, and for her spiritual growth.
  • For Filip, for salvation in Jesus Christ and spiritual growth thereafter.
  • For Mélanie, for her healing and help in finishing her degree under difficult circumstances, and for encouragement to move forward with spiritual growth.
  • For Jeffery, for the salvation of his two sons.
  • *For Dorota's healing from inoperable cancer, and for her salvation *[more needful than ever as she is immense pain].

  • *For old friend and seminary colleague, pastor Mark, for his healing from cancer and its complications *[praise here, as he is in full recovery mode at present!].
  • For Peter, for the deliverance of his family from cult influence and to be led to salvation in Jesus Christ.
  • For comfort and encouragement for Charles and his family in the recent loss of wife and mother.

  • More E-mails:       Complete archive of previous emails:  Ichthys' Emails

    Ministry and Preparation for Ministry VII

    Legalism, Past, Present and Future IV

    New Testament Interpretation VII

    Eschatology Issues XXIV: the 'Rapture' et al.

    Believers in the World VIII: Coping with Family

    Salvation, the Gospel, and Unbelief IV

    Believers in the World VII

    Culture and Christianity XX

    Biblical Languages, Texts and Translations XI

    Cults and Christianity XI

    Spiritual Gifts and False Teaching

    Angelic Issues VIII

    Christology Questions X

    Believers in the World VI

    Genesis Gap: Questions and Answers VI

    Atheism and Evangelism

    New Testament Interpretation VI

    Old Testament Interpretation XII

    Fighting the Fight VIII

    Spiritual Warfare VI

    Sin, Faith and Suffering

    Prayer, Vows and Confession

    Eschatology Issues XXIII

    Apologetics, Ministry and False Teaching

    Culture and Christianity XIX

    Ministry and Preparation for Ministry VI

    Church: The Biblical Ideal versus the Contemporary Reality II

    Salvation, the Gospel, and Unbelief III

    Fighting the Fight VII

    The Holy Spirit: Pneumatology Questions VI

    Interpretation, Application, Exegesis and Ministry

    Biblical Anthropology VII

    Baptism: Water and Spirit VIII

    Text and Canon

    New Testament Interpretation V

    Grace versus Law II

    Apathy, Atheism, Cults and False Teaching

    All about Ichthys III

    The Battlefield Within II: Combating anger, fear, blaming God, blaming others

    Salvation Questions III

    Faith, Forgiveness, Salvation III

    Eschatology Issues XXII

    Cults and Christianity X

    Cults and Christianity IX

    Ministry and Preparation for Ministry V

    Fighting the Fight VI

    Marriage and the Bible VII

    Culture and Christianity XVIII: Substance Use and Abuse, Tithing, Politics and Environmentalism, Friendship, Self-Defense, and Work

    Paul the Apostle: Aspects of his Life and Ministry II

    Old Testament Interpretation XI

    Mutual Encouragement in Christ VII

    The Transitional Era of the Book of Acts and its Unique Spiritual Gifts

    Old Testament Interpretation X

    Marriage and the Bible VI

    The pre-Trib 'Rapture': so called 'imminence' and other false proofs refuted

    Encouragement, Spiritual Testing and Spiritual Growth III

    Eschatology Issues XXI

    Eschatology Issues XX

    Biblical Languages, Texts and Translations X

    Legalism, Past and Present III: Sabbath observance, tithing, dietary regulations and other issues

    Believers in the World V: Ministering, Mutually Encouraging, and Coping with Family, Politics, and Health

    Salvation, the Gospel, and Unbelief II

    Old Testament Interpretation IX

    Christology Questions IX: Christ and His Church

    Mutual Encouragement in Christ VI: Perseverance

    Science and the Bible III

    Faith, Forgiveness, Salvation II

    Eschatology Issues XIX

    Ministry and Preparation for Ministry IV

    Bible Interpretation IX

    Marriage and the Bible V

    Gospel Questions XIII

    Biblical Anthropology VI

    Cults and Christianity VIII

    Fighting the Fight V: Dispatches from the Laodicean 'Front' II

    Old Testament Interpretation VIII

    Eschatology Issues XVIII

    Spiritual Growth III

    Ministry and Preparation for Ministry III

    Sin, Guilt, and Salvation II

    New Testament Interpretation IV

    Biblical Languages, Texts and Translations IX

    Peace, Reconciliation and Salvation

    Mutual Encouragement in Christ V: Soldiers of the Cross

    Baptism: Water and Spirit VII

    Faith, Forgiveness, Salvation

    Cults and Christianity VII

    Old Testament Interpretation VII

    Sin, Guilt, and Salvation

    Eschatology Issues XVII

    Dangers of the Pre-Trib Rapture False Teaching

    Biblical Languages, Texts and Translations VIII

    The Infinity, Magnitude, Glory, Providence and Plan of God

    Eschatology Issues XVI

    Gospel Questions XII

    The Bible and the Canon: The Inspired Word of God IV

    Nephilim, Antichrist, the False Prophet and the Mark of the Beast

    Angelic Issues VII

    Prayer Questions II

    The Trinity and Messianic Legalism II

    Annihilationism, Universalism, Hell and Judgment II

    Atheism and Apologetics II

    Politics versus Spiritual Growth II

    Culture and Christianity XVII: Humor, Self-Defense, Pacifism and War

    Culture and Christianity XVI: Alcohol, Money and Dietary Issues

    Dreams, Visions, Miracles, Exorcism, Tongues, and False Prophets

    Calvinism, Catholicism and Ichthys

    Apologetics, Legalism, Cults and Philosophy

    The Law, Legalism, and Rome

    Mutual Encouragement in Christ IV

    Genesis Gap: Questions and Answers V

    Faith and Free Will in Trial and Testing

    Free Will and God's WILL in Salvation

    Jobs, Money, Finances and Giving: What does the Bible say?

    Ministry and Preparation for Ministry II

    Eschatology Issues XV

    Dealing with Sin and Guilt

    Mutual Encouragement in Christ III

    Preparing for Tribulation II

    It is Better on the Other Side

    Family Matters

    Christology Questions VIII: The Deity, Humanity and Life of Christ

    The Lives of the Apostles and the Writing of the New Testament II

    Biblical People and Places: Eve, Cain, Noah, Abraham, Hagar, Esau, Joseph and more

    Biblical Anthropology V: Body, Spirit and 'Soul', Present and Future

    Satan, Antichrist, the False Prophet and the Mark of the Beast

    The Holy Spirit: Pneumatology Questions V

    Prophets, Prophecy, and False Prophets

    Christology Questions VII: The Life and Spiritual Death of Christ and Holy Communion

    The Bible and the Canon: The Inspired Word of God III

    Culture and Christianity XV: The Bible vs. some Sensitive Social and Political Issues

    Christology Questions VI: Christophany, Deity and the Spiritual Death of Christ

    Encouragement, Spiritual Testing and Spiritual Growth II

    Spiritual Warfare V

    Cults and Christianity VI

    Fighting the Fight IV: Dispatches from the Laodicean 'Front'

    Eschatology Issues XIV

    The Gift of Tongues: Part 3

    The Resurrection Body and our Eternal Future II

    Gospel Questions XI

    Blindness, Disease and Healing

    Ministry and Preparation for Ministry

    Atheism and Apologetics

    Biblical Languages, Texts and Translations VII

    Church History II

    Salvation Questions II

    Culture and Christianity XIV

    Encouragement, Spiritual Testing and Spiritual Growth

    Judaism and Legalism in the church-visible

    Bible Interpretation VIII

    Apostasy, Sin and Salvation

    Confronting False Groups and False Teaching III

    Eschatology Issues XIII: Time of the Tribulation and the Resurrection, Antichrist and the Mark of the Beast

    Salvation Questions

    Theological Questions II

    The Holy Spirit: Pneumatology Questions IV

    Old Testament Interpretation VI

    More Questions on the Book of Hebrews: Melchizedek, Esau, and the 'Impossibility' of Being Restored

    Believers in the World IV: Making Godly Choices vs. Following Man-Made Rules

    Guilt, Sin and Victory through Spiritual Growth

    Confronting False Groups and False Teaching II

    Cults and Christianity V

    Politics versus Spiritual Growth

    Christian Struggle, Perseverance and Deliverance

    The Bible and the Natural World

    Sin, Fear and Forgiveness

    An Extended Conversation on the 'Unpardonable' Sin

    Eternal Realities: Real Heaven, Real Hell

    Eschatology Issues XII: Babylon, Armageddon, Israel, 2026

    Ministers, Ministry, and Preparation for Ministry

    Evangelism in Principle and Practice II

    Gospel Questions X: Glory, John the baptist, the hidden talent, the Kingdom of God

    Old Testament Interpretation V: The Flight to Egypt, the Virgin Birth, Jonathan's Choice, Tyre in Prophecy

    Matthew Questions, verse by verse

    Marriage and the Bible IV

    Politics and Political Action on the Eve of the Tribulation

    Bible Versions, Bible Translation, and Bible Reading IV

    Spiritual Growth II

    Mutual Encouragement in Christ II

    Baptism: Water and Spirit VI

    Science and the Bible II

    Genesis Gap: Questions and Answers IV

    Culture and Christianity XIII: College, Dating, Marriage and Friendship

    Eschatology Issues XI: Trumpets, the Millennium, the Time of the Tribulation and the Resurrection.

    Sin according to the Bible: Hamartiology II

    Bible Interpretation VII

    Salvation and Sin

    Bible Interpretation VI

    Eschatology Issues X: Strong delusion, blood moons, 2026, imminence, apostasy & the mark of the beast

    Angelic Issues VI: Cherubs, Guardians, Elders and 'gods'

    Sin according to the Bible: Hamartiology I

    Bible Chronology, Aramaic and Interpretation

    Christians and Mental Illness

    Culture and Christianity XII

    Prayer Questions

    The Trinity and Messianic Legalism

    Anger, Anthropopathism, Eternity and Divine Motives

    Unbelievers, Free Will, and the Plan of God II

    Christology Questions V: the Baptism, Temptation and Spiritual Death of Christ

    The Bible and the Canon: The Inspired Word of God II

    Believers in the World III: Prosperity Gospel, Tithing, Cults and Legalism

    Gospel Questions IX

    Faith, Hope and Love: Virtue in Spiritual Warfare

    Trinity Questions II

    Some Sensitive Topics IV

    Finding a Church – or Something Better? II

    New Testament Interpretation III

    Faith vs. History, Archaeology, Philosophy

    Believers in the World II: Confronting False Groups and False Teaching

    The 144,000 and the Two Witnesses of the Tribulation

    Biblical Anthropology IV: Soul and Spirit, Image and Likeness, Book of Life, Life at Birth, Accountability and Infant Salvation.

    Spiritual Growth

    Predestination, Free Will and False Teaching

    Christophany and the Trinity

    Love, Marriage, and Divorce: Marriage and the Bible III

    Interpreting Dreams and Analyzing Prophetic Claims

    Culture and Christianity XI: Lying, Suicide, Tattoos, Investing, Drugs, Music, Family, Dating, Politics

    Bible Versions, Bible Translation, and Bible Reading III

    Eschatology Issues IX: Amillennialism, Trumpets, and the Seven Days

    Spiritual Warfare IV: Demons, Demonic Influences and Satanic Methodology

    Satan's Fall from Grace

    Atheism and Gnosticism: Denying the Truth about God

    Sin, Salvation and Forgiveness: Claiming the Mental and Spiritual High-Ground

    Struggling with Salvation . . . and Relatives

    Legalism, Past and Present II

    Ministry and the Ichthys Ministry II

     All about Ichthys II: Mutual Encouragement in the Lord

    The Book of Job and Christian Suffering

    Genesis Gap: Questions and Answers III: Creationism, Neanderthals, Fossil Record

    Christology Questions IV: Jesus' Birth, Baptism, Early Life, and Kenosis

    Third Party Testimony III: Near Death Experiences, Revelations and Tongues

    Third Party Testimony II: Charismatic Claims of Visions, Dreams and Prophecy

    Third Party Testimony I: We Believe God and His Word – Not People

    God Heals - in His way (not our way)

    Sanctification, Separation and Restraint

    Finding a Church – or Something Better?

    Culture and Christianity X:  Military Service, College, Politics, and Race Relations

    Contemporary Churches and Women Preachers

    Culture and Christianity IX: Politics, Tithing, Music, Crucifixes, Alcohol, and Gambling

    Marriage and the Bible II

    Biblical Anthropology III: Soul versus Spirit, "Soul Sleep", and the Interim Body

    New Testament Interpretation II: Who is equal? Grace in vain. Unequally yoked.

    Aspects of the Crucifixion II: Wednesday, Thursday, or Friday?

    Aspects of the Crucifixion I: Carrying the cross, trials and rooster crow.

    Salvation Lost and Found

    The Canon: Content, Chronology, and Criticism

    Spiritual Warfare III: Peter's 'Angel', Saul's Death, and Strange Events

    Old Testament Interpretation IV: Gehazi's Leprosy, Tyre's Destruction, and Immanuel

    Nephilim, Fallen Angels, and Genesis 6

    Gospel Questions VIII

    Sin, Atonement and Forgiveness II

    Sin, Atonement and Forgiveness I

    Annihilationism, Universalism, Hell and Judgment

    When is the Rapture?

    Noah, the Flood, and the Nature of Animals

    The Tribulation: Timing of, Preparation for, and Conditions in

    Eschatology Issues VIII: Revelation, Tribulation and Judgment

    Antichrist: the Mark, the Number, and the Identification of the Beast

    Satan's Revolt and the Tribulation to Come

    Old Testament Interpretation III: The Name 'Jacob', the Mark of Cain, Jeshrun.

    Old Testament Interpretation II: Urim and Thummim, the Bronze Serpent, the Ark.

    Being Saved: Security, Apostasy, and the Sin unto Death

    Fighting the Fight III: False Teaching, Local Churches, and the Truth

    Fighting the Fight II: Struggling with Sin, Doubt, and Severe Testing

    Fighting the Fight I: Accountability, Faith, Sin, Forgiveness, and Reward

    Dispensations, Covenants, Israel and the Church II

    Dispensations, Covenants, Israel and the Church I

    Witnessing: Cults and Christianity II

    Witnessing: Cults and Christianity I

    Ministry and the Ichthys Ministry

    Biblical Interpretation V

    Baptism: Water and Spirit V

    Spiritual Growth, Church-Searching and "Discipling"

    Unbelievers, Free Will, and the Plan of God

    Biblical Languages, Texts and Translations VI

    Baptism: Water and Spirit IV

    Paganism, Idolatry, Mythology and the Occult

    The Lives of the Apostles and the Writing of the New Testament

    The Essence of God and Deity of Christ

    Parables and their Interpretation

    The Meaning and Purpose of True Christian Assembly

    Marriage and the Bible

    Spiritual 'ups' and 'downs'

    1st John: Text and Interpretation

    Eschatology Issues VII

    Perseverance in the latter days of Laodicea

    Babylon USA?

    Baptism: Water and Spirit III

    Prayer: the Persistence, Purpose and Power of.

    Paul the Apostle: Aspects of his Life and Ministry

    Gospel Questions VII: The Wedding at Cana et al.

    Israel, 'Lost Tribes' and the Star of David

    Israel and Antichrist in Eschatology

    Explaining and Defending the Trinity and the Person of Christ II

    The Holy Spirit: Pneumatology Questions III

    Culture and Christianity VIII

    The Geography of Heaven, Hades and 'Hell'.

    Eschatology Issues VI

    Bible Interpretation IV

    Legalism, Past and Present

    The Resurrection Body and our Eternal Future.

    Christ the First-Born, High Priest in the Order of Melchizedek.

    Bible Versions, Bible Translation, and Bible Reading II

    Bible Versions, Bible Translation, and Bible Reading

    Hermeneutics, Typology, Christophany, Theophany and Anthropopathism.

    No, Hebrews does not teach that you lost your salvation.

    Gospel Questions VI: the Long Ending of Mark et al.

    Judas and the Betrayal of Christ

    Doubting Salvation and Questions of Sin

    The 144,000: God's Seal vs. the Mark of the Beast

    Atheism: Putting Truth to Death

    War in Heaven II

    The Holy Spirit: Pneumatology Questions II

    War in Heaven

    The Holy Spirit: Pneumatology Questions I

    The Law, Love, Faith-Rest and Messianism

    Paul and the Law

    Genesis Questions III

    Sin and Salvation, Confession and Forgiveness

    Have I Lost My Salvation? (III)

    The Battlefield Within: Fighting the inner spiritual Struggle.

    Putting Christ in Christmas: Loving Jesus, the Star and the Magi, Wonderful Counselor.

    Old Testament Interpretation: Moses and Zipporah, David's disastrous Census, the Destruction of the Midianites, et al.

    Healing, Miracles, and Dreams: Sorting the Wheat from the Chaff by biblical Means

    153 Fish: Explaining some Difficult New Testament Passages

    Kenosis: Our Lord's Self-Limitation during the 1st Advent

    Biblical Anthropology II: 'Soul sleep', & dichotomy vs. trichotomy

    Biblical Anthropology I: The Nature of Human Beings and Human Life according to the Bible.

    Genesis Gap: Questions and Answers II.

    Culture and Christianity VII: Jury Duty, Witnessing, Biometry, Military Service et al.

    Culture and Christianity VI: Halloween, Holidays, Aliens, and Christian Applications.

    Angelic Issues V: Michael, the Angel of the Lord, Christophany, demons, cherubs, and Satan's revolt.

    Angelic Issues IV:  Satan's Revolt in the Plan of God.

    New Testament Interpretation: Melchizedek, 'Forsake not Assembly', 'Women Remain Silent', Water-Baptism, Tongues, Prophecy, Intervention of Departed Believers.

    Lost my salvation II?

    All about Ichthys: Mutual Encouragement in the Lord. 

    Genesis Questions.

    Fallen Angels, Demons, Nephilim, and the Devil's Methodology.

    End Times Interpretation II.

    Salvation, the Gospel, and Unbelief.

    The Bible and the Canon: The Inspired Word of God.

    End Times Interpretation.

    Grace versus Law.

    Communion and the Spiritual Death of Christ.

    Sinlessness and 1st John.

    Israelology, Anti-Semitism, the Remnant, Gentiles, Lost Tribes, Jewish Myths.

    "Soul Sleep" versus our true Heavenly State.

    Christology Questions III: The Angel of the Lord, the Lamb Slain, monogenes.

    Angelic Issues III: Demons, Satan, Elders, Female Angels and Guardians.

    Against Universalism III: Unbelievers in the Plan of God.

    Waters Above, the Firmament, and the Genesis Gap.

    Marriage "Matters".

    In Need of Guidance and Encouragement.

    Biblical Languages, Texts and Translations V.

    Servants, Slaves, Disciples, and Ministers.

    Baptism: Water and Spirit II.

    Bible Interpretation III: David's Anointing, Stephen versus Genesis, Triplets, This People, and more.

    Evangelism in Principle and Practice.

    Scripture versus Personal Experience.

    Calvinism, Covenants and Catholicism.

    Culture and Christianity V: Temporal Authority vs. Biblical Application.

    False Doctrine of Absolute Eternal Security III.

    The Dangers of Messianic Legalism IV: Unclean and Impure?

    Things to Come III: The Wrath of God and the Fate of the Beast's Army.

    God Works All Things Together for Good.

    The 7 Trumpets, the 7 Kings, Nephilim, Antichrist and Revived Rome.

    The Coming Tribulation and the Kingdom of God.

    Sin, Confession and Forgiveness.

    Mutual Encouragement in Christ.

    Biblical Languages, Texts and Translations IV.

    Culture and Christianity IV: Doing one's job as 'unto the Lord', the peril's of 'heroic medicine', Christian perspectives on legalizing marijuana, when lying is not a sin, and when life begins.

    Eschatology Issues V: "It is not for you to know the times or the seasons".

    Ichthys and Contemporary Christianity.

    Gospel Questions V: Help my Unbelief, Respecting our Enemies, etc.

    The Two Witnesses of the Tribulation: Moses and Elijah.

    The Apostles, the Jerusalem Council, and Legalism then and now.

    Aspects of the Christian Walk: Gambling, Lying, Christmas, Judging, Worrying, et al.

    No Rapture

    Believers in the World: Using our Free Will to Respond to the Lord

    Christology Questions II: The Serpent Lifted and the Cross, Jesus' Infallibility, Destroy this Temple, the Sign Spoken Against, His Glorification, the Spirit's Anointing, and the Necessity for His Humanity.

    Paul's Jerusalem Error, Worshiping Truly, the Priesthood of the Believer, and Peter's Vision of the Impure Food

    Christian Trials and Testing

    Gospel Questions IV: The Prophet, the rich man in Hades, Peter's wife, the 'eleven' and the 'twelve' apostles, 'the world could not contain' (Jn.21:25), and progressive revelation.

    Eschatology Issues IV: Israeli politics, 'This Generation', Signs of the Times, the Beast presently alive?, 'Flee Babylon', Preparing for the Tribulation, and 'was, is not, will be'.

    John's Water-Baptism versus the Baptism of the Holy Spirit

    Eschatology Issues III: Over-focusing on Revelation, the Seven Churches, Enoch versus Elijah, and the Symbolism of the Menorah

    The Purpose of Chronicles, Cyrus the Persian, the Chronology of the Exodus Plagues, Qumran and Isaiah, Nebuchadnezzar's Madness, and Jeremiah 31:22, "A Woman will Embrace a Man".

    Aaron and the Golden Calf, Mount Zion, Moses and Zipporah, the high priest's attire, and the ark of the covenant.

    Aspects of the Genesis Curse on Animals, the Tree of Knowing Good and Evil, Jacob Wrestling with the Angel of the Lord, and Kainam.

    The City of David, the Star of David, Solomon's Wisdom, and the Song of Solomon.

    The Israelites at Kadesh and 'not entering the Land of Promise'.

    Genesis Gap: Questions and Answers.

    Sin and Spiritual Transformation.

    Cults and Christianity IV

    Cults and Christianity III

    Cults and Christianity II

    Cults and Christianity.

    One Baptism: the True Meaning of Peter's Words at Acts 2:38.

    Apostasy and the Sin unto Death, the Conscience and Sanctification.

    The Plan of God and Individual Salvation (excerpt from BB 4B)

    In Your Anger, do not Sin:  Ephesians 4:26 and the Sin Nature

    Bible Interpretation II: Easter, Abiathar, the Hyssop-Blood Cross, Baal, the Scarlet Thread, Names of God, Adiaphoria, and Mezentius.

    Spiritual Warfare II

    Culture and Christianity III

    Have I Lost my Salvation?

    On the Firing Line: Encouragement in Christian Trials

    Eschatology and the Old Testament

    Prayer and our Walk with Jesus.

    Issues of Canonicity II: Aramaic, Enoch, KJV, and the Pastorals

    Bible Vocabulary and Bible Word Studies

    Satan, his Demons, and the Gnostics

    Antichrist: Alive and Well and Living on Planet Earth?

    The Nature of Angels

    Our Eternal Future: Life after Death for Believers in Jesus Christ

    Giants and Nephilim, Sumerian Myths, and Sea Monsters

    Dreams and Visions II

    The Golden Rule

    The Divinity of Jesus Christ

    Free-Will Faith and the Will of God

    Some Sensitive Topics III

    The Spirit that dwelleth in us lusteth to envy: explaining James 4:5.

    Faith: What is it?

    The Seven-Fold Spirit of God.

    Free-Will Faith in the Plan of God.

    Putting the Word of God First.

    Free-Will Faith.

    The False Doctrine of "Soul Sleep" II.

    The False Doctrine of Absolute Eternal Security II.

    The Plan of God

    The Dangers of Messianic Legalism III

    The Dangers of Messianic Legalism II

    The Dangers of Messianic Legalism.

    The Gift of Tongues: Part 2

    The Gift of Tongues: Part 1

    Mega-Churches, Emergent Christianity, Spirituality and Materialism.

    Epignosis, Christian Epistemology, and Spiritual Growth.

    Jephthah's Daughter, Marriage, Divorce, and Remarriage.

    Christian Unity and Divisiveness.

    Death, Martyrdom and Resurrection.

    Blessing, Cursing, and Prayer.

    Freedom and Responsibility.

    Fighting the Good Fight of Faith.

    Only-Begotten, Mother-of-God, On-this-Rock: English-only Interpretation is Dangerous.

    The Greek Text of the New Testament and some Issues of Textual Criticism.

    What does the name 'Christian' mean?

    Some Jewish Issues.

    Christians Beware: Internet Frauds and the Need for Spiritual Discernment (part 2).

    Christians Beware: Internet Frauds and the Need for Spiritual Discernment.

    Sin and Forgiveness.

    Spring Special: The Millennial Regathering and Purging of Israel.

    Life Begins at Birth.

    Culture and Christianity II

    Culture and Christianity I

    The Saved and the Unsaved

    Last Things and Last Judgments

    The Local Church and Personal Ministry IV

    The Local Church and Personal Ministry III

    The Local Church and Personal Ministry II

    The Local Church and Personal Ministry I

    More on Antichrist and his Kingdom

    Antichrist and Babylon

    Prophecy Questions.

    Theological Questions

    Heavenly Things.

    Dysfunctional Churches.

    Some Sensitive Topics II.

    Christmas Special: The Judgment and Reward of the Church.

    What is God's Will?


    Thanksgiving Leftovers.

    Combating Legalism VI

    Combating Legalism V

    Combating Legalism IV

    Combating Legalism III

    Combating Legalism II

    Combating Legalism I

    Aspects of the False Doctrine of Institutional Security

    Chronological Order of the Books of the Bible II

    Biblical Languages, Texts and Translations III

    Biblical Languages, Texts and Translations II

    Biblical Languages, Texts and Translations I

    Gospel Questions III: Least in the kingdom, Millstones, Pennies, Pebbles, Babes, Rhaka, Tallits, and the Crown of Thorns.

    Gospel Questions II: Jesus' Turning Water to Wine, Sweating Blood, Walking on Water, Washing the Disciples' Feet, and the Promise of Freedom."

    Things to Come II: Genesis Rapture, Daniel's Weeks, Seven Kings, Signs of the Apocalypse, Tribulational Suffering, Seven Seals, the Bride of Christ, and Mystery Babylon.

    Things to Come: The Half Hour, the 144,000, the Book of Life, Rewards, the Beast's Kingdom, the Great Apostasy, and the so-called 'Partial Rapture'.

    Satan and the Existence of Evil.

    The Holy Spirit: Blasphemy against, Restraining Ministry, and Gender.

    Spiritual Gifts and Spiritual Growth

    Christian Love, the Golden Rule, Christian Military Service and Self-Defense.

    Issues of Canonicity: Apocrypha, Enoch, and Inspiration.

    Church: The Biblical Ideal versus the Contemporary Reality.

    Numbers, Letters, and the Mark of the Beast.

    Gospel Questions I: Jesus' Life, the Gospels and Cherubs, and who Wrote Matthew.

    More Questions about Genesis.

    Naaman, Nero, Nineveh, and Senacharib.

    The False Doctrine of Absolute Eternal Security.

    Choosing Hell: Questions about Salvation and the Love of God.

    The Chronology of the End.

    The Route of the Israelites in Crossing the Red Sea.

    Some Issues of Transmission, Translation, and Transliteration: The Camel and the Needle, etc.

    Aspects of the Life of Christ: Jesus' siblings, the man born blind, et al.

    Jesus is God and man.

    Jesus is God.

    Redemption, the Blood of Christ, Christ our Passover, and The Passion of the Christ.

    Eschatology Issues II: Angelic bodies, heaven and hell, Satan and the Nephilim, etc.

    The Book of Job and Biblical Interpretation.

    Some Questions about Eternity.

    Who Controls our Thoughts and Emotions?

    The Day of the Lord.

    Sleep as a Euphemism for Death.

    Literal Hell.

    Christ's Preaching to the Spirits in Hell (1Pet.3:18-20), & Michael's Rebuke of Satan (2Pet.2:10-11 ).

    Recovering from Sin.

    The Timing of the Resurrection.

    Dispensations, the Church, the Rapture, and the Destruction of the Universe.

    Christianity versus Contemporary Kitsch.

    Purpose Driven Life, Oprah's New Age Religion, et al.

    Lot, Esau, and Cain: Learning through Negative Examples.

    Against Universalism II: Only Believers are Saved.

    Against Universalism I: Free Will and the Image of God.

    Courage in the Fight.

    Demon Influences.

    Sabbath Questions.

    The Seven Edens and the Eden of Adam and Eve.

    Opposition to the Genesis Gap from the Creation Research Institute et al.

    Mary 'Full of Grace'?

    Changing the Name of God?

    The Beast:  Some Questions about Antichrist.

    The Book of Revelation:  Some Questions.

    Red Hot or Lukewarm? Bible Teaching versus Sermonizing.

    The Last Judgment and the Great White Throne.

    Baptism:  Water and Spirit.

    Spiritual  Marathons.

    Christology:  Some Questions on the Life of Christ.

    Regarding Ichthys.

    Train up a Child in the Way he should Go.

    War, History, and Politics.

    Unbelief and its Consequences.

    Dreams and Visions.

    Explaining and Defending the Trinity and the Person of Christ.

    Free Will and Faith under Pressure.

    Angelic Issues II.

    Science and the Bible.

    Bible Interpretation I:  Academics, Versions et al.

    Faith in the Word of God: the Basis of all True Worship.

    Aspects of the Resurrection II.

    Faith and Encouragement in the midst of Fiery Trials.

    Some Sensitive Topics.

    Jethro, Amenhotep, Iraq, the Catacombs, and the KJV.

    Eschatology Issues: The Fig Tree, Ezekiel 38, Joel 3, and the Trumpets.

    Christ the Rock, the Rooster's Crow, and the Cross.

    Applying Faith II: Production, Forgiveness, Circumcision, Truth over People.

    Applying Faith: Eating, Drinking, and Vacation.

    The Tree of Life, Communion, and the Virgin Birth.

    Grammar Questions.

    Can Prayer Be Offered From Heaven? & Some Genesis Questions.

    Walking the Path of Faith through the Light of the Word of God.

    Salvation on the battlefield, truth revealed to infants, and damnation.

    Preparing for Tribulation.

    Divine Sovereignty and Divine Judgment.

    God's Free Gift of Salvation.

    Should Christians wear Jewelry?

    The Lord's Prayer.

    The Events Surrounding the Birth of Christ.

    Cremation or Burial?

    Zechariah, Demon Possession, Marriage, Spiritual Experiences, and Bible Prophecy.

    No Grounds for Divorce?

    The Shape of the Universe, Hominids, and the Genesis Gap.

    Taking Personal Responsibility: Interest, Bankruptcy, Gambling, and Employment.

    The Seven Churches, the Judgment Seat of Christ,  and other issues in Eschatology.

    The Canonicity of the book of Hebrews.

    Great White Throne, the Last Judgment, and the Outer Darkness.

    Political Action versus Biblical Christianity.

    Study Tools and Methodologies.


    The Gospel and the Kingdom of God.

    Pursuing a Deeper Relationship with Jesus and Christian Epistemology.

    The Origin and the Danger of the Pre-Tribulational Rapture Theory.

    The Divinity of the Spirit and the Percentage of those who are Saved.

    Should Christians ever consider getting a lawyer?

    Pastoral Authority, Popes, Pat Robertson, and Pelagianism.

    Some Questions on Church Polity.

    Apostles and Evangelism

    Luther, Arminius, Calvin, Kant, Ironside, Tutu and Thieme.

    Angelic Issues.

    Transmutation, Resuscitation, and Resurrection.

    Is the Soul a tertium quid?

    More on the Documentary Hypothesis and More on the Rapture.

    Enoch's Walk with God and Some Questions in the Gospels.

    The Influence of the Renaissance and Rationalism on the Church and Cutting off Arms in Malachi 2:3.

    Sabbath Observance.

    1st John 5:20 & Romans 6:23.

    Eschatology Questions.

    Baptism and Following Jesus.

    Where is Armageddon?

    Assurance of Salvation.

    The Cross, Sin, and the Devil in God's Plan.

    More on: Spiritual Gifts; Hats & Hair; the Age of Accountability.

    Daniel 9:25 and Daniel 11:30.

    Who will populate earth during the Millennium?  and  Asking for Wisdom: James 1:5.

    Was Judas Saved?, The Gospel of Judas, and Issues of Canonicity.

    Is 'My Son' Israel or Jesus in Hosea 11:1?  &  How do you Prove Sin to Someone?

    Did Matthew Write his Gospel in Hebrew?

    Christian Crowns, Pagan Names, and the Time of the Cock-Crow.

    Child-like Faith, Mark vs. Matthew, the Mahdi, and 'Who was with God in the Beginning?

    True Orthodoxy and False Creeds.

    Foot-washing, Bitter Herbs, Baptism, and Borrowed Faith.

    All Things Charismatic.

    Friday versus Thursday Crucifixion.

    Jesus' Cursing of the Fig Tree, Apostasy, and 'Feng Shui'.

    The Genesis Serpent, Using "it" to refer to the baby Jesus, and more on Tattoos.

    Combating Gnosticism.

    Resisting the Devil.

    Why did Jesus choose John over James to take care of His mother Mary?

    Antichrist's 'desire of women' in Daniel 11:37 et al.

    Do recent catastrophes have a divine origin?

    Does God really want us to be sick and poor?  Revisiting the prosperity gospel.

    Why did our Lord Jesus arise from the tribe of Judah?

    What will our relationship be in heaven with children who died young?

    The baptism of the Holy Spirit as distinct from speaking in tongues.

    The Grammar behind the Genesis Gap.

    The Great White Throne Judgment.

    Moses and Zipporah.

    The Victory of Faith.

    Does God's choice of us eliminate our free will?

    Why does God allow bad things to happen?

    The Bible as "divine", roof prayer, and tattoos.

    Character in Hebrews 1:3, et al.

    Exorcism, et al.

    "Are the children of unbelievers lost if they die before receiving Christ?"

    How not to get "left behind".

    "Is baptism necessary for salvation?"

    "The nature of life after death."

    "The personality of the Holy Spirit."

    "The dragon of Revelation 12 and the talking idol of Revelation 13."

    "Bound by Satan in Luke 13:16, language and the Tower of Babel, Daniel's 70th week, and the number 12."

    "Infirmities and Diseases in Matthew 8:17"

    "The Leftover Baskets of Bread and Fish in John 6."

    "Waiting for the Ascension" and "Amos 4:11".

    Why was Canaan cursed?

    Should Christians have a competitive attitude?

    John "leapt for joy" in the womb - or did he?

    Satanic Influence in Video Games and Television.

    Moving Mountains:  Matthew 21:21

    Not a hair shall be lost? Luke 21:16 versus Luke 21:18.

    The reign of antichrist:  7 years or 3 and 1/2 years?

    The Trinity in Scripture.

    The Ark of the Covenant.

    "Doubts about the Nephilim in Genesis 6" and "Ezekiel 9:4 and the Mark of the Beast"

    "Word Counts in the Bible", "Him whom they Pierced (Rev.1:7)", and "Necromancy".

    "Waiting for a Savior" and "The Direction East in the Bible"


    Is there a purgatory according to the Bible?

    Your desire shall be for your husband: Genesis 3:16.

    Have I committed the unforgivable sin?

    Is the local church meant to be a patriarchy?

    Why doesn't the Bible mention all of the prophets of the children of Israel?

    The True "Victorious Life".

    Tohu in Genesis 1:2 and the Cause of the Darkness.

    Why Doesn't God Prevent All Children from Dying?

    Why were Christians being regarded as "evil-doers" in 1st Peter 2:12?

    The Scofield Reference Bible.

    Phylacteries and the Mark of the Beast, and "What about Joseph?"

    Feeling desperate and alone.

    Is Tithing net or gross?

    Assembly of the local church, and Jesus' use of "I AM" from Exodus 3:14 in John 8:58

    The "burden of the Lord" in Jeremiah 23:32-40, and judgment for idle words in Matthew 12:36-37.

    The importance of spiritual resiliency.

    Does God use disease to discipline us?

    Recovering from Cult Exposure.

    Variability in Christian Testing and Personal Tribulation.

    Is there any value to the Apocrypha?

    The Communion Ceremony outside of the local church.

    The Christian Walk, the End, and Tattoos.

    Should Christians honor Sunday as the new Sabbath?

    Chronological order of the books of the Bible.

    Doubt, light, missed opportunities et al.

    Addicted to Sin.

    Corporate prayer in Matthew 18:19:  "when two agree on earth".

    What does the Bible say about humor?

    The value of cumulative prayer.

    Our Heavenly, Pre-Resurrection, Interim State.

    How could a loving God order the destruction of the Canaanites?

    Should Christians observe the Torah?

    Church Polity and three other passages.

    Walking with Jesus.

    Tongues: does 'no man' understand?

    The few saved, the door in heaven, visions of heavenly realities, and Christmas.

    Spiritual Warfare.

    Christian suffering and spiritual maturity.

    Aliens, antichrist, and eschatology.

    Does exceptionally sinful behavior indicate that a Christian has lost salvation?

    Should Christians celebrate Jewish festivals?

    The Deaths of the 12 Disciples / Apostles of Christ.

    Categories of Sin in Psalm 19.

    Some brief answers on a variety of topics.

    Pastoral Support, Pastoral Preparation, and the Purpose of Assembly.

    Eternal Rewards.

    Encouragement, Isaiah 6:11-13, and the Hope of Repentance.

    Questioning the Genesis Gap.

    Dinosaurs, the Nephilim, Noah, et al.

    How much should we pay our pastor?

    More about Women Preachers.

    Is it wrong for me to celebrate Easter?

    The Remnant in Isaiah 6:13.

    The Big Distinction.

    The Day of the Lord in 2nd Peter 3:10.

    The Day of the Lord.

    Church History.

    The Sealing of the Holy Spirit.

    Visions of Angels: Colossians 2:18.

    Waiting on God's timing:  patience in testing.

    "Your Throne, O God":  Psalm 45:6.

    Moses striking the Rock.

    Procreation and Creation.

    What is meant by the phrase "the Lord's footstool"?

    1st Peter 3:3-5

    A conversation about divorce and remarriage.

    Faith in the midst of the fiery trial.

    Hebrews 10:26 again, and two other notes on Arthur Pink and the Greek word diakonos.

    What is the correct translation of Isaiah 59:19?

    Is the star of Acts 7:43 the star of David?

    Some questions about Nimrod and Christmas trees, Tongues, and Healing

    Is Jesus the only One ever to restore sight?

    What happens to people who were born and died prior to the birth of Christ?

    Which is better, the King James Version or the New King James Version?

    What is the minimum necessary to be saved?

    How can we know whose interpretation of the Bible is right (Part 2)?

    How can we know whose interpretation of the Bible is right (Part 1)?

    Psalm 22:1, "My God, My God, why hast Thou forsaken Me?"

    The "Mind of Christ" in 1st Corinthians 2:16

    Simeon and Simon, and the two crows of the rooster

    Ichthys, saints, and the Last Adam

    Does Hebrews 10:26 teach loss of salvation?

    Eternal security: where does one draw the line?

    Who are Gog and Magog in Ezekiel 38-39?

    How did John the baptist come to doubt Jesus?

    Is Jesus literally seated on the throne at God's right hand?

    Are the Celts the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel?

    Whatever happened to the "Genesis Gap"?

    "The baptism which now saves you":  1st Peter 3:21.

    Hebrew Language Study Tools.

    What type of healing is being discussed in Isaiah 53:5?

    The Origin of the Four Seasons

    2nd Peter 3:5: Doubting the Tribulation

    Tent-making and Galatians 6:6

    A Question about Ichthys books

    Biblical Metaphors and Symbolism

    Faith and the Pre-Tribulational "Rapture".

    Faith Healing.

    Bible translation and John 8:58.

    Melchizedek and the high priesthood of Christ:  two questions et alia.

    In need of encouragement.

    The centurion and the Syro-Phoenician woman.

    Who is the Meshiach?

    A Sadducean Question

    What is "heaven" like according to Christian teachings?

    Acts 20:28: Whose Blood?

    1st Corinthians 11:  Hats or Hair?

    Confession of Sin, Fellowship, and the Filling of the Holy Spirit.

    A Miscellany of Questions and Answers (Nineveh, the beast, tongues, demons, Sadam, etc.)

    Some Greek Questions in the Gospels (John 1:3; 2:19; 8:58; Luke 23:43)

    Is Man trichotomous, and does that mean that salvation is three-tiered?

    Questioning the Trinity

    The blood of Christ

    Christ knocking at the door in Revelation 3:20

    The futility of memory without God and eternal life.

    The meaning of Jesus' words, "I am" in John 8:58

    What does the Bible say about Heaven and Hell?

    Peace in 1st Corinthians 14:33

    Salvation and Church Affiliation.

    Several questions on the book of Hebrews.

    Does the Bible prohibit women from preaching or teaching in the Church?

    Should Christian leaders refrain from drinking in public?

    How to use the Bible translations at Ichthys.

    The Worship of Jesus:  a proof of His divinity?

    An Extended Conversation about the Baptism of the Holy Spirit.

    Is water baptism required for Christians today?

    Are health and wealth a part of the gospel?

    Will those in Hades be able to see Christ's return?

    Feelings of Guilt about Remarriage.

    Who are the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel?

    What does "the Word was with God" mean in John 1:1-2?

    Three questions on three verses in Isaiah (Is.21:4; 28:10, & 66:24).

    How important is education for a pastor?

    Does Hebrews 10:26-35 ("deliberate sinning" etc.) mean that a believer can lose his or her salvation?

    Availability and use of Ichthys materials: several questions.

    Is there any difference between demons and fallen angels?

    Confronting atheism.

    Two questions about Judas Iscariot.

    Three Questions about Tattoos and Salvation.

    The Hebrew word for 'one' (`echadh) and the uniqueness of God.

    Did the witch of Endor really conjure up the spirit of Samuel?

    A Question about the "Waters Above".

    Why did God the Father wait so long to send Jesus into the world?

    How does being "slain in the Spirit" relate to being baptized in the Spirit?

    How do you prove the existence of God?

    Where does the Bible teach that Jesus is God?

    Is it ever Justifiable to Tell a Lie (part 2)?

    Seeing double in Matthew.

    Mary, Joseph, and Nazareth.

    Is the Westminster Catechism a Good Reference Tool?

    What does it mean "the spirit returns to God" in Ecclesiastes 12:7?

    Is there any Connection between biblical Gemstones and Moral Characteristics?

    Are Miraculous Gifts Operational Today?

    Jesus Christ in the Old Testament (Christophany: Gen.3:8).

    Can those in organizations which teach "salvation by works" be saved?

    Is "helpmeet" a wrong translation in Genesis 2:20?

    Our will and God's WILL.

    Cast thy Bread upon the Waters:  What do the seven and eight portions in Ecclesiastes 11:2 mean?

    Was Cain Satan's literal "seed"?

    The Demon Possessed Girl in Acts 16:16.

    The "Sin unto Death" in 1st John 5:16.

    Is death just a natural part of human life?

    Communion and the Blood of Christ.

    What does it mean in 1st Corinthians 7:14, "the unbelieving husband is sanctified"?

    The Re-institution of the Feast of Tabernacles in the Millennium.

    Secular Documentation for the Exodus.

    The false doctrine of "soul sleep".

    The Author of Hebrews and Jesus' Perfect Completion of His Mission.

    The Trinity in Isaiah 63:10-15.

    How old was Jesus at the time of His crucifixion and resurrection?

    Five Smooth Stones: 1st Samuel 17:40

    How can we know the Bible is true?

    The name "Jesus".

    Habakkuk's Prosperity Prayer: Habakkuk 3:17-19.

    Jeremiah 31:22: "A Woman shall Compass a Man".

    The New International Version of the Bible and some issues in Bible translation.

    Is "the Prophet" of Deuteronomy 18:18 Muhammad?

    The One True God and the Trinity in the Old Testament.

    Are those in Hebrews 6:4 who "crucify the Son of God afresh" lost?

    Are New Bible Translations Part of a Conspiracy?

    What exactly is the "red heifer prophecy", and how does it relate to the events of the end times?

    Where did the waters of Genesis 1 go?

    Interpreting Revelation

    Sin, Baptism, and the Book of Revelation

    Tithing and the Book of Life

    The Dangers of the Prosperity Gospel.

    English and the Tower of Babel.

    The "Seven Thunders" of Revelation 10:3-4

    The fate of the unrighteous dead in Isaiah 66:24

    Who are the "sons of the kingdom" in Matthew 18:11-12?

    Why does Judah get greater honor than Jerusalem in Zechariah 12:7?

    Are there Female Angels?

    Longevity in the Millennium.

    How is the date of Easter computed?

    What is the meaning of the 1290 days versus the 1335 days in Daniel 12?

    What Church era are we now in?

    The mark of the beast.

    Christophany in the Exodus.

    Can you explain "help my unbelief!" in Mark 9:24?

    What does it mean to "overcome" in Revelation chapters 2 and 3?

    Are women required to wear veils or hats in church?

    Is the world about to come to an end?

    Does the Bible ever describe the earth as being round?

    Pre-, mid-, or post-Tribulation rapture?

    Pearls before swine.

    Recognizing the Messiah.

    The gift of healing.

    The origin and fate of the "giants" in Genesis chapter six.

    Christian suffering - Christian encouragement.

    Is speaking in tongues biblical?

    Is speaking in tongues a sin?

    Can you recommend a good commentary on the book of Romans?

    Aspects of the resurrection.

    The recipients of Peter's epistles.

    Pre- or Post-Tribulation "rapture"?

    The lives of the prophets.

    The old prophet who lied.

    Animal sacrifice in the millennium.

    Is it ever justifiable to lie?

    Who wrote the King James version?

    The meaning of the divine name יהוה.

    The so-called "documentary hypothesis".

    The relationship between the books of Kings and Chronicles.

    David's disastrous census of Israel.

    Aspects of the Unseen Angelic Warfare and 666, the Mark of the Beast.

    The 200 million strong demon army of Revelation 9:13.

    Deliverance through Childbearing in 1st Timothy 2:15?

    Some questions about the Tribulation.

    More on divorce and remarriage.

    Divorce and remarriage.

    The antecedents of ICHTHYS.

    What does it mean to "remember the Sabbath and keep it holy"?

    The manner of the apostle Peter's death.

    Wasn't Matthias the thirteenth apostle?

    Forward progress necessary for salvation and spiritual growth.

    The "seven days" of human history.

    1st John 1:9 and confessing sin.

    ICHTHYS and the role of traditional Christianity.

    Can you recommend a good survey for the Old and New Testaments?

    Where can I find more information on the "Genesis gap"?

    Is Church membership an issue in salvation?

    Can you recommend a church?

    Are these materials available for purchase as books?

    A bit of autobiography.

    What is your opinion of the Abingdon one-volume Bible Commentary?

    What is the significance of the number "20" in the Bible?

    The 144,000 of Revelation chapters 7 and 14.

    What is your view on predestination?

    Who is "true Israel"?

    The chronology of the date 2026.

    Does baptism play a role in being born again?

    Why does the devil have access to God while man cannot stand in His presence?

    The structure of the book of Revelation.

    What is your view of the rapture?

    What is meant by the "10 days" of Revelation 2:10?

    Dragons in the Bible?

    Are there apostles in the Church today?

    What is the meaning of the word "chosen" in the Bible.

    The Passover.

    What are the most common Bible names?

    What is the biblical significance of the number forty?

    What does the Bible have to say about witchcraft?

    How can I protect myself from false teaching?

    Didn't the devil know he couldn't defeat God?

    Are the Masons wrong according to the Bible?

    Six Questions.

    Can the faith of "backsliders" be restored?

    Are there biblical origins to mythology?

    What does the phrase "sides of the pit" mean in Isaiah 14:15?

    Can prayer be offered in the name of the Son?

    Election and John 6:37?

    Is it valid to celebrate Christmas?

    Can you give me some information on divine names in the Bible?

    What is the significance of name changes in the Bible?

    Is faith a "gift of God"?

    Is there a "gospel of Thomas"?

    Is the nature of Man dichotomous or trichotomous?

    Will the temple be rebuilt in Jerusalem?

    Does the Bible teach a literal Millennium?

    What does the word "good" mean in Genesis?

    Who are "the dead" who "rise first" in 1st Thessalonians 4?

    Are the Greek tenses in John 7:34 correctly translated?

    Is the devil "mad" to oppose God?

    Does the Bible require supporting the pastor financially?

    How can Jesus be a man and God at the same time?

    How did people atone for intentional sin in Old Testament times?

    What is the symbolism of the Lamb of God in Revelation?

    Can you recommend some word study tools for Bible study?

    Can people who commit suicide be saved?

    Are tattoos biblical?

    Is it "ichthys" or "ichthus"?

    What is the difference between wisdom and discernment?

    Marriage of Believers and Unbelievers.

    Is hearing believing in John 6:35?

    How certain a date is 2026?

    Is Paul describing himself in Romans chapter seven?

    Is tithing required for salvation?

    What is the evidence for the "rapture"?

    Is there any validity to the "prosperity gospel"?

    Who are the "Nephilim" in Genesis chapter six?

    Church attendance.

    Is there a literal "devil"?

    What does the Bible have to say about reincarnation?

    What is the unpardonable sin?

    Believing the Bible for Spiritual Growth.

    Why was the New Testament written in Greek?

    What about those who have never heard of Christ?

    What about elders and deacons?

    Eternal Security and "sinless perfection".

    Eternal Security and "salvation by works".

    Does the Bible teach ex nihilo creation?

    When did Jesus first know He was God's Son?

    Are there prophets today?

    Despairing of life.

    How important is baptism?

    How could Christ have been three days and nights in the grave?

    Do Muslims worship the One true God?

    What can I do about spiritual fainting?


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