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Question #1:

Dear Robert

Thank you for the timely and well put response! I can’t thank you enough for taking such time and putting such heart into your replies.

Okay I have another scripture that I need help understanding. The parable of the talents in Matthew 25:14-30

It seems the three servants are all believers, the first two worked and made more money but the third did not (because he was afraid of the master?) if these are all believers and the two that worked entered the joy of the Lord but the final servant was cast into outer darkness (which I take to be hell) because he did not work. Does this push a works based salvation? How can I interpret this passage properly?

Response #1:

In the parable of the talents (Matt.25:14-30; cf. also Lk.19:11-27 ), the talents represent free will exercised in faith. The first two individuals are believers who respond to the Lord and win rewards; the last one does not respond to the Lord at all, not even in the first place. There can be no question of eternal rewards for this person because he is not saved – and suffers accordingly.

We find this pattern in all of the parallels and descriptions of eternity, namely, believers being differentiated from unbelievers, with variations among believers (resulting in different levels of reward), but unbelievers being lumped together as one: regardless of what they did, they didn't accept the Gift of life eternal in Jesus Christ and so do not have eternal life. This and all other relevant passages are covered in CT 6 under "The Judgment and Reward of the Church"; the "Last Judgment" of unbelievers is found in CT 6 also (at the second link).

In Jesus our dear Savior,

Bob L.

Question #2:

Hello Dr. Luginbill.

It has been quite a while since I have emailed you and I hope all is well. It has been quite interesting (and at times ridiculous) in the Fire/Rescue business with Covid, but God has protected me and mine, and even blessed me through it all (additional hazard pay)! I have continued to study your work and the Bible daily (started BB#7 today, exciting, been waiting for this one!) and I have learned so much and continue to grow spiritually, so a great big thanks to you, and to the Lord for all your hard work and effort.

I have been leading a small group of people (5) in your Peter Series and we are up to #21, perseverance of faith. They love your work and I think I am learning as much leading it, as they do hearing it for the first time! Anyway, one of the them had a interesting question (which really didn't have anything to do with the lesson, per say), which I was not quite sure how to answer. The question was, "In Old Testament times prior to scripture being composed, how were people aware that there was actually life after death, the realities of heaven, and that they could spend eternity with God?" I mean obviously they were aware of death (mortality rate always been 100%), and they were aware of the existence of God by just observing creation. But how would they have known the deeper realities that we know today from progressive revelation, and a completed canon of scripture? Any help you can give me would be greatly appreciated! (still learning so be easy on me! Lol) (no hurry)

Thanks again for your incredible ministry, what a blessing it has been to me and so many others!

Keeping you in my prayers!!

Response #2:

Good to hear from you! I'm happy to hear that you are persevering in spite of all the unpleasantness! And of course also that the Lord is a shield around you.

As to your question, I suppose the first thing to note is that we can say definitively that in fact believers before the cross did begin to have a blessed after-life immediately upon departing this one (e.g., 1Sam.18:15; cf. Lk.16:22ff.). Second, the hope of the resurrection is evident throughout the OT (e.g., Gen.50:22-25; Is.26:19; cf. Jn.11:24; Heb.11:22; 11:35). And thirdly that there is evidence in the OT of knowledge of the blessedness and eternity of the life to come (Is.25:6-8; 30:26; 65:17; 66:22).

We can also affirm that the Lord has never let anyone who belongs to Him lack for anything needful, especially not the truth.

(7) "Ask, and it will be given to you; seek, and you will find; knock, and it will be opened to you. (8) For everyone who asks receives, and the one who seeks finds, and to the one who knocks it will be opened."
Matthew 7:7-8 ESV

In OT times, He spoke to believers "at many times and in many ways" (Heb.1:1), in dreams and visions and angelic visitations. We have the complete Bible. So I am certain that there were things, e.g., Abraham knew about the Lord and the truth which are not recorded for us in Genesis – indeed, the narratives of Genesis assume a deep knowledge of the Lord and His truth on the part of the patriarchs without giving us a set of appendices that line all that out (e.g., Gen.31:42). But since we have the whole Bible we can figure it out. In short, the mystery doctrine related to Christ and His Church (and the mystery age intercalated in the divine calendar) constitute the main area of truth that was not fully understandable before Christ came in the flesh and the Spirit was given after His ascension.

(10) The prophets diligently investigated and inquired about this salvation, when they prophesied about this grace [that was to come] to you. (11) For they were eager to discover the precise time the Spirit of Christ within them was signifying as He predicted the sufferings of Christ and the glories that would follow. (12) For it was revealed to them that in prophesying these things, they were not so much serving themselves as they were you – and these same things have now been proclaimed to you through those who gave you the gospel through the Holy Spirit, sent from heaven – even angels want to look into these things.
1st Peter 1:10-12

Finally, it's also fair to say that while we today are given to know a great deal more about our eternal future than was the case before the New Testament was written (we have all the wonderful details in the book of Revelation, for example), even so we have lots of questions about it and we really cannot fully grasp what living forever means, what being resurrected in a perfect body means, what no more night and only light means, what our rewards will mean to us, etc., etc. In fact, when scripture does give us explanations, it's in the form of "absence of negatives": no tears, no pain, no death, etc. Because until we experience it, we really cannot understand it – except to say that it is good and desirable and blessed and wonderful in every possible way . . . and certainly beats the alternative.

Here are a couple of links:

What is the Eternal Future of those who Lived before Christ?

In BB 4B:  "The Gospel before the Cross"

Thanks for those prayers!

In Jesus our dear Savior,

Bob L.

Question #3:

Dear Sir,

Thank you again for your recent updates on your study guides. Do you think that we truly need so much external knowledge? ( as wonderful as knowledge is).

From my own daily studies of the Bible and from personal experience, it would seem to me that what the Lord requires is for us to have internal organic knowledge and experience rather than just having "letters".

In the above scripture from John (1Jn.2:27), it says that we have need of no one to teach us because of the Anointing that abides within our own regenerated Spirit.

Yes, we do need instructions and guidance especially if we are new Christians (discipleship) but this is to guide us and to keep us until we realise that the Life Giving Spirit of Christ desires to Abide with our own regenerated spirit, and that he is in fact now abiding,

The error with Christianity today ( and for many hundreds of years past) is that we have not denied our Soul Life ( as Jesus requires) we have not left Egypt or the World or the Flesh,
Our own spirit has to be released from the custody of our Soul so that it can spread through out our whole being. From personal experience this is accomplished through many and various tribulations and sufferings. The Released Spirit of Christ into and joined with our own Spirit is "The Anointing" which teaches us all things ( yes, with the external Word of God to confirm and prove the inner organic Word of God). In fact a double witness! Fine salt and Fine sugsr look the same externally, but the proof is in the tasting. Surely the only way to know and to live Jesus is to taste and feel him. People need to see and touch Jesus in these days that we are living in, They most definitely don't want to touch and see us. But the Jesus who lives in and through and out of us to touch others in their need. IS THIS NOT THE GOSPEL ? WHEN WE BEGIN TO FEEL THE WORD(AS THOUGH IT WERE OUR OWN WORD) ORGANICLY AND THAT FEELING LINES UP WITH THE WRITTEN WORD, WE SHALL ASK WHATEVER WE MAY ( AS LONG AS IT IS WHAT GOD DESIRES FOR US AND FOR OTHERS ACCORDING TO HIS PURPOSES) AND WE SHALL RECIEVE IT,


Response #3:

There are plenty of NT passages that speak of teaching, teaching gifts and the need for teachers (Matt.28:20; Lk.12:42; Jn.21:17; Rom.10:14; 1Cor.4:1-2; 12:28-29; 2Cor.10:8; Eph.4:11-16; 1Thes.2:4; 5:12-13; 5:17; 1Tim.2:15; 3:1; 4:6; 4:12-16; 2Tim.1:6; 1:13; 2:2; 2:24-26; 3:10; 3:14-17; Tit.2:7-8; Heb.13:17; Jas.3:1; 1Pet.4:10-11; 5:1-4). Superfluous passages . . . if your interpretation were correct.

Proclaim the Word! Keep at it, whether circumstances are favorable or not! Reprove, rebuke, [and] encourage with all patience [in your] teaching!
2nd Timothy 4:2

Knowledge on its own is nothing. Truth believed is everything. But truth cannot be believed until it is understood, and that requires knowledge and also teachers.

As to 1st John 2:27 in particular, it does not mean what this common and misleading interpretation declares it to mean. Greek frequently omits by ellipsis the direct object – something English never does without a marker:

But as for you, the anointing which you received from Him remains in you, and you have no need for anyone to teach you [this (i.e., v.26 and previous)]. But just as His anointing teaches you about all things and is true and not false, so also as He has taught you, remain in Him.
1st John 2:27

If John had been writing in English, he would have included the "this". And if individuals who advance this interpretation had a little "knowledge" of Greek, they wouldn't be sending other believers off the cliff of ignorance as if they needed no teaching. Everyone needs good Bible teaching. That is the only way to draw closer to Jesus Christ – through the truth.

We all need the Spirit but the Spirit speaks to our consciences by reminding us of the truth we have learned and believed – coming from good teaching. And if we have learned and believed precious little, then we will be reminded of precious little. Listen to the Spirit. He tells all to seek the truth.

But from there you will seek the Lord your God and you will find him, if you search after him with all your heart and with all your soul.
Deuteronomy 4:29 ESV

I love those who love me, and those who seek me diligently find me.
Proverbs 8:17 ESV

Seek the Lord while he may be found; call upon him while he is near.
Isaiah 55:6 ESV

You will seek me and find me, when you seek me with all your heart.
Jeremiah 29:13

For who is he who will devote himself to be close to me?’
Jeremiah 30:21b NIV

(7) "Ask, and it will be given to you; seek, and you will find; knock, and it will be opened to you. (8) For everyone who asks receives, and the one who seeks finds, and to the one who knocks it will be opened."
Matthew 7:7-8 ESV

And without faith it is impossible to please him, for whoever would draw near to God must believe that he exists and that he rewards those who seek him.
Hebrews 11:6 ESV

Draw near to God, and he will draw near to you.
James 4:8 ESV

After expulsion from the garden, ignorance is no longer a virtue.  Making it one only puts believers who buy into that horribly false notion vulnerable to the ravenous wolves (false teachers) who are prowling out there everywhere in our Laodicean era.  It also goes directly against what our Lord told us:

"Behold, I send you out as sheep in the midst of wolves. Therefore be wise as serpents and harmless as doves."
Matthew 10:16 NKJV

In Jesus our dear Lord who is the truth and whose written Word is the very truth.

Bob L.

Question #4:

Hi Dr.

I pray you are doing well. I was doing the bible study on Romans and we were talking about the benefits of salvation and one of its benefit is Glorification. Someone asked me that he was informed that we will not be able to recognize each other in heaven because it doesn't specifically say it in the bible.

This is totally heretical and contrary to biblical teaching. I gave examples of the Transfiguration, Lazarus and the Rich man, Adam and Eve in the Garden and finally 1 Thessalonians chapter 4. Finally, I stated what is the point of being saved and praying for others salvation and fellowshipping here on earth with other believers if we won't recognize them.

The one who believes in Oneness also was the one that is instigating this theory. I believe I might have a false teacher. He is also a pastor here. I don't want to say that too cavalierly but it is not a coincidence that two critical teachings of the bible was revealed to me in less than a week.

I have not done a study on this but I know it is a biblical truth. I will do an in-depth study tomorrow but if you can give me guidance, I would appreciate it.

Thank you very much

Response #4:

You are absolutely correct, of course, and your examples are spot on.

As to glorification, I suppose this false idea is taken from misinterpreting this passage in Romans:

Moreover whom He predestined, these He also called; whom He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified.
Romans 8:30 NKJV

But as the progression there indicates, this is speaking about our resurrection and our reward in eternity where we are "glorious" in our new bodies and "glorified" by our rewards and see the "glory of God" face to face. That is what "glory" refers to when speaking of believers throughout scripture, especially in the NT, and this is also very clear just from that same chapter of Romans:

The Spirit Himself bears witness with our spirit that we are children of God, and if children, then heirs—heirs of God and joint heirs with Christ, if indeed we suffer with Him, that we may also be GLORIFIED together. For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the GLORY which shall be revealed in us. For the earnest expectation of the creation eagerly waits for the revealing of the sons of God. For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of Him who subjected it in hope; because the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the GLORIOUS liberty of the children of God. For we know that the whole creation groans and labors with birth pangs together until now. Not only that, but we also who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, eagerly waiting for the adoption, the REDEMPTION of our body (i.e., resurrection).
Romans 8:16-23

Keep fighting the good fight, my friend.

In Jesus our dear Savior,

Bob L.

Question #5:

Dear Bob:

Thanks for the Feedback. What I also noticed is if I fail a certain temptation often enough that temptation is taken away or reduced. I believe I negatively impacted my future reward and rank by doing this. What do you think?

In Jesus Christ our Lord


Response #5:

The only way to live the Christian life is one day at a time. It's never any good to be looking backwards.

(12) [It is] not that I have already gotten [what I am striving for], nor that I have already completed [my course]. Rather, I am continuing to pursue [the prize] in hopes of fully acquiring it – [this prize for whose acquisition] I was myself acquired by Christ Jesus. (13) Brethren, I do not consider that I have already acquired it. This one thing only [do I keep in mind]. Forgetting what lies behind me [on the course] and straining towards the [course] ahead, (14) I continue to drive straight for the tape, towards the prize to which God has called us from the beginning [of our race] in Christ Jesus. (15) So as many as are [spiritually] mature, let us have this attitude (i.e., of focusing on our spiritual advance and reward and not getting hung up on what lies behind: vv.13-14), and if in any matter your attitude is off-center, God will reveal that to you (i.e., assuming you are mature and are advancing as you should). (16) But with respect to the progress you have made, keep on advancing in the same way!
Philippians 3:12-16

If anyone had occasion to be concerned about past actions diminishing future rewards it was Paul who persecuted the Church – but as the greatest apostle he will have his name on one of glorious foundations of the wall of New Jerusalem.

We have the time left that we have left. We are rewarded for spiritual growth, spiritual progress (in passing tests, etc.), and spiritual production. Nothing positive we do for the Lord will be lost or go unrewarded (Matt.10:42), just as long as we stay faithful to the end (2Jn.1:8; Rev.3:11).

We've all stumbled; we've all failed. But progressing believers get back up and continue their spiritual advance – and are rewarded for it.

So be strong and courageous – and continue the fight (Is.41:10)!

Those who sow in tears
Shall reap in joy.
Psalm 126:5 NKJV

And let us not grow weary while doing good, for in due season we shall reap if we do not lose heart.
Galatians 6:9 NKJV

In Jesus Christ our Lord.

Bob L.

Question #6:


Sorry to bother you again about this same thing but it is something I still struggle to understand :

1) Our good deeds are like filthy rags
2) We are saved by faith not by works
3) Faith without works is dead
4) We are created to do good works, which God prepared in advance for us to do

Can you please explain how these all fit together as I still read these and stumble. Please make it as simple as possible as my tiny brain cannot understand!

In Jesus; the Way, the Truth and the Life,

Response #6:

On your question, the word "work" or "deed" means anything we "do" – or say or think (see the link). The idea that this word should be restricted to, e.g., "acts of charity" and such is a throwback to RC theology. Unbelievers at the last judgment are evaluated on the basis of "their works" – which means "everything they have thought, said and done" (link).

So, for example, James' "faith without works" means "faith without doing anything about it", as in not trusting God in the heart, not witnessing to the truth with one's words, not responding to the Lord where the Spirit guides us to it – as in Rahab harboring the spies (one of James' example of good works).

So I think the "problem" is positing a false theological category and extrapolating from that false category. That is much of traditional theology in a nutshell, by the way!

In Jesus our dear Lord and Savior,

Bob L.

Question #7:

Hi Bob,

There is a few verses in the bible that I am struggling to fit together. They are seemingly contradictory but I know that it will be my understanding that is at fault. I am tripping up over the doctrine of "works".

There are two verses in Matthew that trip me up in that they seem to point towards a "works based Gospel" even though I know that salvation is through grace through faith alone.

I realise that this a comprehension failure on my part but some people use these types of verses to push legalism. Whenever I read over them though, I still feel myself trip up.

I wonder whether it is because Jesus was talking about what was happening current to His time on earth and then was pointing out that people needed a Saviour and so He was pointing forward to the cross.

"For I tell you that unless your righteousness surpasses that of the Pharisees and the teachers of the law, you will certainly not enter the kingdom of heaven."
Matthew 5:20

“Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only the one who does the will of my Father who is in heaven."
Matthew 7:21

The reason I trip up on these is because it is specifically about entrance to the kingdom of heaven. The way I interpret the first example is that our faith in Jesus exceeds the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees. I am a bit thrown about the scribes and Pharisees as Jesus had little good to say about them.

My book "Unlocking The Bible" says the following...

Would you agree with this that we are saved FOR righteousness and it is this righteousness that must exceed the scribes and Pharisees? Again though, weren't these two groups hypocrites? That would mean they were not righteous at all but whitewashed tombs! I don't understand why they are given as a standard with this in mind.

In 7:21 Jesus says that we need to do the will of our Father to go to heaven. Is this verse specifically about false preachers? About those who profess faith but do not have it? Is it about our behaviour after we have been saved? Surely that though is salvation plus works?

Am I right in thinking that works is evidence of faith but it is no substitute for saving faith because Paul says that our righteous acts are like filthy rags but then James says that faith without works is dead. He also goes onto to say something that really trips me up..

What good is it, my brothers and sisters, if someone claims to have faith but has no deeds? Can such faith save them?
James 2:14


You see that a person is considered righteous by what they do and not by faith alone.
James 2:24

James is asking whether faith alone can save? That we must have faith plus works?

I know that this is a common subject to struggle with. I know it's about rightly dividing the word. I know that with verses I don't understand, once I am on the right track then I go on in confidence. This works thing though is a persistent stone in my shoe through my walk! Please help me to take the stone out and put it in the right place once and for all!

Many thanks my friend!

In Jesus,


I've just reread what I wrote and I think I am closer to understanding..

Jesus said He was the cornerstone that the builders' rejected. The cornerstone is the first stone that is laid down in the foundation of a building it is also the foundational stone. When we have faith in Jesus, that cornerstone has been laid within us and then we should build up on this foundation through good works.

The corner/ foundation stone = faith in Jesus = Salvation = Justification

Building upward from the foundation = Good works through faith = Spiritual growth and application of the Word by faith = Sanctification

Works without faith means no salvation. Whereas faith without works means no sanctification.
As works is evidence of faith because it is the Holy Spirit doing the works through us, if we do no works, do we really have faith? I guess this draws a distinction between those who profess faith but show no evidence of it.

Also good works are like filthy rags because we are still sinners and we shouldn't be puffed up by our good deeds because of this. Also doing good works once we are saved should be a given shouldn't it?

I feel that good works is only possible for believers because of the Holy Spirit. That it is only because we are empowered by the Holy Spirit through faith that we can do good at all.

Am I on the right lines here, or totally off base?!

In Jesus,

Response #7:

You wrote: "I feel that good works is only possible for believers because of the Holy Spirit."

That is exactly right. Two people can do the same thing and the one be good in God's eyes and the other not. Cain and Able both presented sacrifices and to the eyes of the world there wasn't much difference. But to God there was all the difference in the world, the difference between night and day – between darkness and light. If we do what God wants God's way as those who belong to Him, that is truly good – and we will be rewarded for it. If instead we do what we want our way – even if we say it's for God – or if we don't belong to Him in the first place (so that there is no power of the Holy Spirit at work), then we are doing what Cain did. Cain was not a believer. He wanted approbation from God because of his own prowess and accomplishments. That is arrogance and not humility. That is the difference. Unbelievers will be judged at the last judgment "according to their works", not sins – as Christ has died for all sin. Their "works" will be shown to be insufficient to save them from hell – they needed to rely on Christ's work for that, but they refused.

Believers also need to be careful about this. We need to keep growing spiritually so as to gain maturity and be able to correctly evaluate "what it is right to do" (Phil.1:10). So believers have to be careful about arrogance and doing the wrong things as well or acting out of false motives. Immature believers who accost people on the street at random to shove tracts in their hands and badger them about their sins, then "count coup" that they've "saved" this that or the other are in my estimation acting out of arrogance in spiritual immaturity. That's just one of countless examples as most of what the church-visible today is doing is not actually "good" in God's eyes. Even "good things" for mature believers can be "not good" in God's eyes for others based upon how they do things and more particularly WHY they do them. Giving food to the hungry in the Name of Jesus Christ might be good, but if the person is looking for credit for doing it, giving interviews to newspapers and basking in the glory of human beings, they have already received their reward (Matt.6:2). Mostly we should be doing [true] good "to the household of faith" (Gal.6:10), meaning other believers. Sometimes this may be material (cf. Jas.2:15-17); but more often than not it will be helping in other ways and especially through encouragement by means of the exercise of our spiritual gifts (Heb.10:24-25) – as what you did in being willing to share your encouraging email.

Keeping you in my prayers daily, my friend!

In Jesus.

Bob L.

Question #8:

I realise that a believer is saved and will go to heaven provide they keep their faith until the end (death of the body). So I guess believers being judged for works, it will be about reward or loss of reward. It will never result in hell because as long as you believe then you are saved from hell.

I still don't understand the unbelievers works being judged. Hell is all hell isn't it? There are not gradations of hell?

Is it true as I said in my previous email that the only reason unbelievers go to hell is because of their unbelief? They won't go to hell for any other sin because all sins have been paid for.
Am I right here?

My confusion was that I thought only believers sins were ultimately paid for as the payment is applied to our sins when we come to faith and as long as we stay in faith until the end.

What has blown my mind is that it isn't potential atonement for the sins of the world but ACTUAL atonement for the sins of the world!!! Whether believer or not!!! That means that it is only unbelief that puts a person in hell. That would make sense as they have actually refused God's more than generous offer and would actually only prefer heaven if God wasn't in it because ultimately it is about denying and refusing God by denying and refusing His son.

That's why believers have to be very careful with all sin as staying in unrepentant sin causes a hardening of heart towards sin and to God and so loss of faith and therefore salvation will soon follow!

Wow! That's incredible!!! It is so genius and so full of grace and love and mercy! Why would anyone say no with the knowledge that all sins have been atoned for!!!

Am I right here? It's taken me so long to understand the full weight and glory of the Gospel good news! Maybe this is because of some residual Catholic teachings had still blinded me to the full truth!

Many thanks again!

In Jesus,

Response #8:

Very nice!

The details on the judgment of unbelievers are all at the link: in CT 6: The Last Judgment. In a nutshell, since all our sins have been paid for at the cross – everyone's (unlimited atonement; see the link), the only sin unbelievers will be charged with is the one sin for which Christ could not die, that is, the sin of rejecting His death for sin on our behalf; that is the "unpardonable sin" which those who "blaspheme the Holy Spirit" commit when they reject the Evangelist in Chief as He witnesses the gospel to them. As a result, at the last judgment, the lives of unbelievers will be examined in detail – all they have thought, said and done, that is, their "works" – and it will be demonstrated clearly that they did know the essential facts (God's existence, His righteous character, their essentially sinfulness), but blotted the truth of these natural revelations out of their hearts by their own free will. It will be shown that nothing they have "done" will be of any value in God's eyes, so that nothing prevents their condemnation. It will be shown how good and just and fair God was to them personally, and it will be revealed that they would never have accepted the Gift of Christ in a thousand life-times.

Blessedly, WE who believe in Christ have nothing to fear from THAT judgment. Our trepidation has to do with wanting to get a good report at the judgment seat of Christ and receive a good reward (2Cor.5:10-11; cf. Rom.14:10; 1Cor.3:11-15).

In Jesus our hope.

Bob L.

Question #9:

Hi Bob,

This is great! Thank you so much! This deals with everything I was asking about!

I realise that any and all questions I have has already been dealt with on your site and that I just haven't got around to it yet.

I try to do my study methodically, unit by unit but sometimes things come up in the middle of one part which is dealt with within another.

Thank you for your patience with me my friend!

Hope you have a lovely day, despite the heat over there. July in England has been a washout. We were sat in the garden yesterday for my ___'s birthday, after the clouds and rain passed over. Shawls and jumpers were put on outside and when I got back I had to put the fire on! Such is English summers!

God bless you.

In Jesus,

Response #9:

No worries, my friend!

My old pastor teacher used to say, "keep listening and eventually all of your questions will be answered". But I don't mind the questions – I think it's good to get some direct input and guidance as we keep "listening/reading" at the same time. Some readers never or seldom ever contact me. Others seem to think that asking questions without ever reading anything on the site is sufficient. You have staked out the solid middle ground, and I think that is a good thing.

Thunderstorm here last night really doused things! Another tonight would be great.

Your friend in Jesus Christ,

Bob L.

Question #10:

Thanks for your concern, this unpleasantness you refer to is corona? It has only strenghtened me. How are you?

I got a path on how to use wikipedia now. God bless you.

Now I'm struggling with galatians 3. I do work alot, but is it for the glory of God, or for me? Am I doing works of self or works of faith? Faith without works are a dead faith. Until a month or 2 ago I felt like I was walking in premade acts, whereas now I don't have clue... At least people are materially blessed by my works. Electronics function, food is received, apartments are cleaned.
But what is important are that souls are getting saved. And I don't see that...

I use this verse to keep on working:

And let us not be weary in well doing: for in due season we shall reap, if we faint not.
Galatians 6:9 KJV

The joy of the Lord is your strenght.
Be joyful in the hope.
God is the God of hope.
Praise be to God forever and ever!

Fix your gaze on Jesus so you wont get tired.

God bless you and keep you in Jesu name.

Response #10:

Doing fine here (for details see latest email postings at Ichthys).

Whatever we do in the Holy Spirit to the glory of Jesus Christ is definitely rewardable.

“And whoever gives one of these little ones only a cup of cold water in the name of a disciple, assuredly, I say to you, he shall by no means lose his reward.”
Matthew 10:42 NKJV

It's true that whatever unbelievers do is pointless as far as God is concerned. But as you mention, if we are following the Lord as we should be, He will lead us into doing what He wants us to do.

For we are His workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand that we should walk in them.
Ephesians 2:10 NKJV

The ultimate purpose of all Christian production is the salvation and spiritual growth of others. As we personally grow spiritually, as we pass the tests that come to the spiritually mature, we become more aware of our own spiritual gifts, and, if we are willing to be led, the Spirit does lead us into the personal ministry the Lord has for us. There are many gifts and many combinations of gifts and as many ministries as there are believers – but we are all part of the Body of Jesus Christ.

Best place Ichthys for this: BB 5: Pneumatology; that is a bit long; you might also have a look at "Ministry and Preparation for Ministry X"; "Ministry and Preparation for Ministry IX";  "Ministry and Preparation for Ministry VIII" (more links to found there as well).

In Jesus Christ our dear Lord and Savior,

Bob L.

Question #11:

Hi Dr Luginbill,

I just keep seeing crazy stuff on the news for your town. But anyway, going off on a short tangent. I am beginning to think there really aren't any inherent differences between the genders beyond the biological (the organ, and being physically weaker). And I have looked through the Bible, and I only ever found the one verse saying we are physically weaker. And that is it. No saying we are more emotional and men are not so emotional (or irrational/rational), etc.

Though that doesn't get rid of that women shouldn't be in certain positions (like pastorship). It is just an odd realization after vacillating between traditional ideals and modern ones.

I am glad Paul never got swept up in culture, which is so easy to do. I am sure if I were to try to talk to him about Homer he would be careful and direct back to the Lord.

Anyway, I will give you a break (not just a couple of days). Sorry.

Response #11:

There seems to be a small cadre of "out of towners" who are continuing the protests, but the numbers are small and the authorities are not putting up with much at this point.

There is neither Jew nor Gentile, neither slave nor free, nor is there male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.
Galatians 3:28

On your question, I will say that in Jesus Christ, all believers men and women both, have been given spiritual gifts through which to do what Christ wants us to do and thus to earn the rewards He wants us to earn. Women thus have equal opportunity to earn the three crowns of reward – as do men who have not been given the gift of teaching (which is most men). Rewards come from responding to our dear Master by doing what He has called us to do today – and there's nothing more important than that (no matter what the world thinks). See the link: "The Judgment and Reward of the Church".

In Jesus our dear Savior,

Bob L.

Question #12:

Thanks a lot man. What are your thought about the notion people are born gay or another gender? Do you think that’s a legitimate psychological thing or is it just them indulging in sinful desires? What about ASPD too? Like psychopaths and sociopaths. Is it the same thing or is there a way to work around their tendency to do harm, be selfish, and have little remorse & empathy? I often wonder how that’d work. Like are the expectations lowered or is there a universal line that has to be crossed in order to be accepted into heaven regardless of how much you know about Christ & Scripture or what psychological conditions you have? If someone like a psychopath accepts Jesus Christ as their Lord and Savior but still does manipulative & selfish stuff will he still be accepted? I guess there is no way to know for sure but I’m more so asking for you opinion on the subject so don’t feel a need to give me THE objective answer. Just tryin’ to start a discussion. Thanks again man.

Response #12:

You've woven a number of questions together here. I'll do my best to unravel them:

1) We are all different, but we all have sin natures. These sin natures all have evil / sinful tendencies, but they are not all identical. We are all tempted but we are not all tempted to the same degree by the same things. As a result, we all sin, but we don't all sin in the same ways. And after we are saved and as we grow we certainly SHOULD become better at walking in a sanctified way in all things. Sin, as I've often remarked, is a subject much deeper and wider than most people understand (see the link: BB 3B). It is just as much of a trap for a person to say "I'm righteous because I don't XYZ" (all the while doing ABC), as it is to say "XYZ is not really sinful because I'm disposed more to XYZ than I am to ABC". Sin is sin. Either justifying it (as in the latter case) or trying to redefine it to only things one is personally able to resist (as in the former case) is spiritually dangerous in the extreme.

2) It can be difficult to separate natural, physical deficiencies occurring at birth which are objectively not the fault of the person who has them on the one hand, from on the other various conditions, real or imagined, that result from a person's own bad choices and questionable behavior over time. None of us in this world is born with a perfect body or a perfect mind, and all of us have in one way or another and to one degree or another damaged both in the course of our lives. What cannot be damaged or affected is our human spirit wherein resides the image of God, the free will faith that is our heritage as human beings. For those who truly do not have the ability to exercise that ability in this life (excessive mental retardation, e.g.), salvation is automatic. For everyone else, response to the gospel is the same: "Believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, and you will be saved!" (Acts 16:31). There is no "epistemological problem" here because the Holy Spirit is the true Evangelist; He makes the issue of salvation crystal clear to the person who receives it, regardless of any other hindrance. So if you have the ability to exercise free will so as to believe, then it doesn't matter what other handicaps you may be suffering under: salvation is yours for the taking, if you just don't say "no!".

3) As to after salvation, none of us is perfect, even after being saved. We are, however, endowed with the indwelling of the Holy Spirit who is God Himself – His power is infinite. For those with various handicaps, God will make it possible for the person to grow spiritually, pass the tests that come to those who are progressing, and also help others through ministry – IF we are willing and commit to this process to which we have been called. Clearly, if we leave accepting Christ until we are 97, that will limit what we can do in response; clearly, if we have damaged ourselves physically by substance abuse (for example), that will limit what we can do physically in our engagement with all things good and true (becoming a missionary might be out of the question now because of that calling's physical demands); clearly, if we have created habits and mental pathways that make concentration and keeping on the right road more difficult, these are self-imposed burdens we will have to cope with in our effort to do what Jesus has called us to do after salvation in growing, progressing and ministering. In all such situations, I wouldn't sell short the grace of God in helping us if we are willing to be helped and persevere in following Him. However, there is never an excuse to sin or otherwise to do wrong. If we sin and/or do wrong, we need to repent, confess, and make every effort to avoid such failures in the future.

I can assure you that at the judgment seat of Christ we will all receive a perfect and perfectly fair evaluation. We will be rewarded for even the smallest things we have done in response to Jesus Christ – even a cup of cold water offered in His Name will not fail to receive its full reward (Matt.10:42). So we don't need to worry about hypotheticals – because they actually do not even exist in the one and only perfect plan of God.

Oh, the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are His judgments and His ways past finding out!
“For who has known the mind of the LORD?
Or who has become His counselor?”
“Or who has first given to Him
And it shall be repaid to him?”
For of Him and through Him and to Him are all things, to whom be glory forever. Amen.
Romans 11:33-36 NKJV

Yours in Jesus Christ our dear Lord and Savior,

Bob L.

Question #13:

Bob, what does verse 2 Timothy 1:18 talking about, on that day?

Response #13:

May the Lord show mercy to the household of Onesiphorus, because he often refreshed me and was not ashamed of my chains. On the contrary, when he was in Rome, he searched hard for me until he found me. May the Lord grant that he will find mercy from the Lord on that day! You know very well in how many ways he helped me in Ephesus.
2nd Timothy 1:16-18 NIV

Paul was one of the most humble believers who ever lived (his chosen Greek name "Small", which is what Paul means, reflects that). Even though he will be one of the most highly rewarded believers of all, yet he could still say the following:

For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, so that each of us may receive what is due us for the things done while in the body, whether good or bad. Since, then, we know what it is to fear the Lord, we try to persuade others. What we are is plain to God, and I hope it is also plain to your conscience.
2nd Corinthians 5:10-11 NIV

The judgment seat of Christ is, of course, the place where we are all evaluated for our lives in this world, and we also know that this is the place where everything we have done which is worthless will be burned up; our legitimate production will be rewarded, but for those with a big "bonfire", while saved, they will be so via an escape through the flames.

If anyone’s work which he has built on it endures, he will receive a reward. If anyone’s work is burned, he will suffer loss; but he himself will be saved, yet so as through fire.
1st Corinthians 3:14-15 NKJV

That is a sobering thought, and Paul clearly was motivated to fight a good fight not only positively (in hopes of a good reward) but also negatively, that is, desiring as little reproach as possible from the Lord He loved on "that day". So in the verse you ask about, Paul is expressing a good outcome for Onesiphorus at his personal judgment, and Paul expresses it here as an absence of negatives – probably because, as the context shows, he was supremely confident that Onesiphorus was going to have plenty of "gold, silver and precious stones".

It is a great encouragement to consider that something like looking up Paul and encouraging him in his distress was considered by Paul – and no doubt by the Lord – as a major "good work", one that has been recorded in scripture forever. So "let us not grow weary of doing good" – things truly good in our Lord's eyes which come from spiritual growth, progress and production in helping other believers do likewise – for on that day of days "we will reap a harvest if we do not give up" (Gal.6:9)

Keeping you in my prayers daily, my friend!

In Jesus our dear Savior,

Bob L.

Question #14:

Is it too late for people who have wasted time to get a big reward and made grudgingly slow progress?

If some who obeyed the Lord, but for the wrong reasons, got those works burnt up or knowing the truth put off coming to the Lord to be a Christian knowing the truth. Any good works in the Lord they then do from then on will they still be able to get a big reward?

Those rewards like in the minas will they get those lesser rewards?

Response #14:

We are rewarded for absolutely everything we do here in the Spirit and genuinely for the Lord (Matt.10:42). Also, it is true that the very smallest possible "coin" of our Lord's "well done!" on that day will be worth more than the entire present universe, and eternally and infinitely so: this world is coming to an end, but the one to come is forever. And every Christian will have something to be rewarded for (because faith without any works is no faith at all: Jas.2:14-26), and those rewards will delight him/her for all eternity while they glorify Jesus Christ.

So with all due respect, I think you're looking at this wrong. The non-rewarded individual in the parables of the talents and minas are unbelievers. Believers will all have much to rejoice about, even (or maybe especially) the most marginal ones. So it's not a question of feeling bad here and now for what one might not win but of feeling joyful about what one has certainly already won . . . and of being motivated to put spiritual growth, progress and production first in one's life so as to win more – as much as possible. For that is what Jesus wants us to do, that is what builds up His Church, and that is what we will be happy we did for all eternity.

Don't look back. Look forward. As long as you are still alive, you have an opportunity EVERY day to add to your heavenly thesaurus. Make the most of that opportunity (Eph.5:16; Col.4:5). Don't waste it by worrying about or lamenting about the fact that you didn't do so yesterday.

In Jesus,

Bob L.

Question #15:

Dear Br Robert

I hope you and everyone around you are keeping well. It’s been a while since I have spoken to you, I need your help regarding a question.

Can someone have his name plotted out of the Book of Life?

Calvinist will use these passages and say those who’s names are in the book of life are predestined, holy and blameless, from the foundation of the world. Thus that cannot be erased.

Revelation 13:8 All who dwell on the earth will worship him [i.e., the beast], everyone whose name has not been written from the foundation of the world in the Book of Life of the Lamb who has been slain.”

Revelation 17:8 The beast that you saw was, and is not, and is about to come up out of the abyss and go to destruction. And those who dwell on the earth, whose name has not been written in the Book of Life the foundation of the world, will wonder when they see the beast, that he was and is not and will come.”

Both of the above passages describe unbelievers as those whose name has not been written in the Book of Life from the foundation of the world.

But how do we reconcile that with;

He who overcomes shall be clothed in white garments, and I will not blot out his name from the Book of Life; but I will confess his name before My Father and before His angels, Revelation 3:5.


And the LORD said to Moses, “Whoever has sinned against Me, I will blot him out of My book, Exodus 32:33.

Can someone have his name plotted out of the book of life?

The grace of God be with you and your family,

Your Br In Christ,

Response #15:

Doing well – hope the same is true for you, my friend!

Everyone is originally in "the book of life"; names are blotted out when a person definitively rejects Jesus Christ or dies without accepting Him. The two passages in Revelation which seem out of sync are mistranslated in most of the versions (see the links for the details):

Salvation and the book of life

"The Book of Life" translation issues

The grammar of Revelation 13:8 and "The Lamb slain"

I will assuredly not erase his name from the Book of Life (in CT 2A)

The Book of Life (Revelation 13:8) - in CT 4

The godly and the godless and the book of life (in CT 6)

Last judgment "books" distinguished from the book of life (in CT 6)

Wishing you a blessed 2021!

In Jesus,

Bob L.

Question #16:

Hi Bob,

A question stimulated by your 3/20/22 post.

You've probably covered this before: I have understood that we will all face the White Throne judgment. The question arises, if we are resurrected and the Lord brings his rewards with him, will we have to face that judgment as well? If so, it suggests resurrected believers can apostasize as well as post Trib survivors.


Yours in our Lord,

Response #16:

The "Great White Throne" judgment of Revelation 20:11-15 is for unbelievers only (see the link).

While all unbelievers are judged at once, the judgment of believers occurs in two phases: 1) the Judgment Seat of Christ which takes place shortly after the 2nd Advent (for the entire Church; link); 2) the Sheep Judgment which takes place just prior to the judgment of unbelievers and involves all the millennial believers, the "Friends of the Bride" (link). The Goats in Matthew 25:31ff. are the unbelievers (so that is the same as the Great White Throne judgment, also known as the "last judgment").

I assure you that after resurrection there will be no sin possible as we will no longer have a sin nature (e.g., 1Cor.15:42-49).

So the really good news is that after the Lord returns and we are resurrected, eternity starts for us that very moment and there will be nothing ever afterward but bliss.

The bad news – for us today possibly – is that this occurs on the other side of the Tribulation, and that won't be a great deal of fun.

In Jesus,

Bob L.

Question #17:

Hi Bob,

Clarification, please: Revelation 20:12 says that the two books would be opened and those not found recorded in the book of life would be thrown to the fire. That suggests to me that those that did right, whether being exposed to the gospel or not could deserve life. (If no one was recorded in the book of life, why open it?) That during the bowl judgments (I believe) scripture says, "and still they did not repent" also suggests that those who did repent at the last, perhaps the unmarked only(?), would also have a chance of life?

It's reassuring that the sin nature will be gone for us. Thoughts are very hard to control! I'm beginning to get an inkling of what the tribulation will be like -- some politicians and celebrities have already called for the destruction of Christians. An early harbinger? Add the rioting, the cancel culture, shunning of the unvaxxed/unapproved, the vitriol and screed common anymore, etc., and the picture doesn't look good. It's some comfort that it's unlikely I'll be alive at the start of the Tribulation. If I do, I will have outlived all but one of the other males in my family. I'm trying to avoid trusting in that, though. It could happen.

Yours in our Lord,

Response #17:

Most of these things are explained in the previous links provided. I'll give you the "nutshell" version here. Why open the book of life? This is because of God's absolute justice, to demonstrate that there are no mistakes in this the most important judgment (for these individuals). If there were "some mistake" that a person found themselves at this judgment, then their name would still be in the book of life. Everyone's name is in there originally and it is only blotted out of the book when a person irrevocably denies Jesus, either during their life or by virtue of refusing to accept Him all the way unto death. Either way, pointing to the book of life and showing the person that their name has been blotted out demonstrates that they are only there at that judgment by their own choosing. God made provision for them to be saved (since Christ died for all), but they, by their own free-will choice, rejected that provision and chose to stand at this judgment instead, choosing by default to stand on their own works instead of on Christ's work in dying for them at the cross. So even though Jesus did die for their sins, and thus their sins are not an issue, nevertheless they are not "in the book of life" by their own choice – they have rejected the provision of salvation – and as a result cannot benefit from what He did for them and must then provide some other "offering" acceptable to God. Of course, there IS no other offering acceptable to God besides the blood of Christ, and Christ is the One who is going to be judging them, the very One whose work for them they have rejected so as having now to stand before Him and offer up their own works as a substitute.

That is where the other set of books come in. They contain all that the person in question "did" during his/her life. And it will be shown from their actions (thoughts, words and deeds), in gruesome detail, in the case of every such unbeliever that in their heart of hearts they were never ever willing to submit to Christ so as to be saved (and would never have done so in a thousand life-times, as long as they possessed freedom of choice). And it will be shown that nothing they had done was worthy of excusing them from rejecting Christ, and that nothing they had done could possibly have wiped away a single sin, no matter how "small", let alone cleared their whole account. Christ did that, but they rejected this payment and now have none of their own – at all. In fact, it will be shown that even such thinking, namely, that they were "good enough" to "get into heaven" on their own account was blasphemous in the extreme and sin in its own right. Even had they built orphanages and given millions to charity and been well-respected in life with thousands attending their funerals, none of that or anything of the like cuts the smallest amount of mustard with God. Only the sacrifice of His Son is acceptable and so the Father has handed over this judgment and all judgment to Jesus Christ.

This will all be very uncomfortable for every unbeliever, to have their real hearts exposed in this way and their false hopes built on the shifting sands of arrogance completely dashed. But it will be most revealing to us, and will help us all to see and understand the complete justice of all that God has done and is doing for those He loves – as well as in regard to those who reject that love absolutely.

Revelation focuses upon God's justice and judgment and vindication of believers through that judgment, because that is what we will need to hold onto during the Tribulation to help us get through: all the really "bad things" which happen will either be from God directed at the evil ones, or from the evil ones directed at us but recompensed by God on our account.

We already know about God's mercy and love and goodness and grace from everywhere else in scripture – and from our own lives. So of course if anyone did repent during the Tribulation, they were saved – and form part of His Church along with us. We do know that the 144,000 fall into that category along with all who respond to their ministry and that of Moses and Elijah. Seems to me that some gentiles will probably fall into that category as well of those saved during the Tribulation as well. And, after all, there will be a great many believers who go into the Tribulation. I think it likely that such trouble will spur at least some unbelievers to repent and be saved (even if most go the other way, along with a third of believers in the Great Apostasy). This is not Revelation's focus; that book stays "on point" to give us the outline of those seven years for our great benefit, if we end up having to endure it – and IF we have not only studied it but also prepared ourselves for what is coming.

"It could happen" – that's right! We will probably know soon enough. Meanwhile, warnings in Revelation that "the time is near" are salutary for us whether or not it "does happen" while we are still around. Same was true nineteen centuries ago. By telling us we need to prepare precisely because "it could happen", scripture helps us prepare for the things that DO happen . . . and things do happen.

In Jesus,

Bob L.

Question #18:

Dear Teacher,

__ was asking me about the judgment at the regathering and raised a quote from CT 4, so I want to run it by you in comparison to another quote from CT 6. I hadn't noticed it before. Are the two saying the same thing? I just assumed that the baptism of fire would happen before the regathering and that those Jews who don't make it into the land are just those who refused to believe in Jesus despite the evidence of their own eyes?


Response #18:

The baptism of fire (Matt.3:11; Lk.3:16; cf. Ezek.39:6) which occurs after Christ's return will only affect those who take the mark of the beast – but it does affect Jewish individuals who have taken the mark (link). There will be some Jews who do not take the mark and who survive the Tribulation but who also refuse to accept Christ as the Messiah even in spite of all the miraculous things they've witnessed (analogous to the exodus generation who quickly turned away from the Lord in spite of witnessing the plagues in Egypt, the parting of the Red Sea, the provision of manna, etc.).

As long as we are walking closely with the Lord, He is the only One we need. If we are given some friendships with like-minded Christians who are also committed to carrying out His will for their lives, that is a wonderful bonus – and if we are given a life-partner who also loves the Lord first and foremost, well, it's hard to do better than that. What we can't expect is for everyone out there who professes to love the Lord to be consistent about it just because we may be, or to appreciate where we are coming from in putting Him first. The truth is divisive, after all, and we who are putting it first in our lives above all else have to be ready to cope with brothers and sisters in Christ who are not willing to do the same.

Keep fighting your good fight, my friend!

In Jesus,

Bob L.

Question #19:

Dear Teacher

Thank you for the explanation. I think I get it now. I was confused about whether you meant in the first bit that the Jews who get the mark of the beast would somehow be in the regathering. I wondered how that could be. My understanding now is that they will be purged through the baptism of fire that will remove everyone who gets the mark of the beast before the regathering and although this happens before the regathering, it is still part of the purging of the Jews.

Response #19:

The baptism of fire is worldwide. No one will get to enter the Millennium who has taken antichrist's mark. Yet another reason why the millennial population will start off small.

In Jesus,

Bob L.

Question #20:

Dear Teacher,

I took that for granted, Sir. I just browsed more of https://ichthys.com/Tribulation-Part6.htm#6._The_Regathering_and_Purging_of_Israel. Should I understand the regathering to be part of the Millennium? That makes sense to me since it is not part of the Tribulation which ends with the destruction of the Antichrist and his cohorts. That understanding will cement the idea that even Jews with the mark of the beast will be removed from the earth through the baptism of fire even as an early part of the purging of the Jewish population.

Your student in Jesus

Response #20:

Absolutely! The Tribulation ends with the second advent and the battle of Armageddon wherein vengeance is wreaked upon all of the Lord's enemies. After that, His perfect reign begins. There are of course a number of things that must happen initially, such as the baptism of fire, the regathering, the victory banquet and the judgment and reward of the Church. But these are all part and parcel of His millennial rule – which, blessedly, we shall share, as long as we persevere in our walk with Him.

"And he who overcomes, and keeps My works until the end, to him I will give power over the nations – 'He shall rule them with a rod of iron; They shall be dashed to pieces like the potter’s vessels' – as I also have received from My Father."
Revelation 2:26-27 NKJV

In Jesus,

Bob L.

Question #21:

I've decided to scrap everything I believe and start over from the basics, I'll start by scrapping everything but these beliefs: https://ichthys.com/1Theo.htm

I'll read this and learn as if I have no concept of anything supernatural. Will that fix my paranoia of taking in occult beliefs? If I worry about it again, I'll just read it again and scrap any spiritual beliefs not in it. Who knows, maybe this will even start off my spiritual growth. I'll even read the rest of your Bible basics and scrap any beliefs that don't line up.

Response #21:

BB 1 Theology is only part one of the Basics Series, all of which is important for basic spiritual growth. I'd suggest you supplement Basics with the Peter series.

Question #22:

I will...will I be able to put them in practice though?

Response #22:

Take it one step at a time, one day at a time.

Question #23:

Doc...I want to reject all pagan and occult ideas...and only believe what's biblical...but I'm not sure if I'll have maniac episodes again where i can't control my mental actions. can Jesus deliver me from this? please pray He will

Response #23:

I'm keeping you in my prayers.

In Jesus, we don't have to fear anything because He cares for us – in fact, we're not supposed to (1Jn.4:18).

Question #24:

Doc...I'm scared I won't be ready. It's only 4 years, 4 short years to prepare for the worst time, the worst struggle man could ever possibly come up with, 11 if we're lucky enough to get an extra 7 years between it like you say we might, and I'm barely saved by the skin of my teeth. What do I do Doc?

Response #24:

There was less time between Pearl Harbor and VJ day than we have left at a minimum, so there is plenty of time – for anyone getting red hot for the Lord.

I've seen people get a long way down the road of spiritual growth in a lot less time than this! So just keep running a good race and trust the Lord to get you there. He is willing and able to help you get ready and get through. You just have to respond.

"Fear not, for I am with you;
Be not dismayed, for I am your God.
I will strengthen you,
Yes, I will help you,
I will uphold you with My righteous right hand."
Isaiah 41:10 NKJV

In Jesus,

Bob L.


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