Question: In regard to the many scriptures which say "and He sat on the right hand of God" - does this mean Jesus is literally sitting on the right hand of the throne of God?
Response: The "right hand" is the place of honor (1Ki.2:19; Matt.20:21-23; cf. Matt.25:33-34; 26:64), and our Lord's sitting down at the right hand of the Father is generally termed His "session". After Jesus was resurrected and ascended to the Father, having passed through the heavens He entered into the heavenly temple of God, and there He received the official proclamation of His victory on the cross, "Sit down at My right hand until I make Your enemies a footstool for Your feet" (Ps.110:1; cf. Heb.1:3). The throne of God as it is presently configured in the third heaven is an awesome thing and quite unlike what we imagine when we use the word "throne". Four cherubs attend it and provide locomotion for it when God appears with it on earth (cf. the book of Ezekiel, especially chapters 1 and 10).
For more about this throne, its purpose and its appearance, please see The Throne of God in part 2B of The Coming Tribulation. To understand the throne and all of the objects in the heavenly temple (see Rev.4-5), one must first understand their earthly types, namely, the furniture and paraphernalia of the earthly tabernacle/temple which represent them symbolically (cf. Heb.8:5).
God's residence in heaven is temporary - earth is the original place of His rule over creation (Ezek.28:13-14; cf. The Satanic Rebellion, Part 1), and the final place of God's residence along with all the redeemed will likewise be the new earth (Rev.1:8; 21:3; and passim in Rev.21-22). The third heaven is His "battle headquarters" from which He is in the process of suppressing Satan's revolt (the period known as "human history" which lies between the two). Just as the ark of the covenant is carried before the Israelites when they go into battle, so we are to see in that symbol and type God going before His people bringing victory by His own power and might. Succinctly put, the throne of God is therefore essentially a "battle chariot" (a fact which explains its unique appearance and its unique functions). While it was not impossible or unprecedented for kings in the ancient world to have honored individuals sit beside them (cf. 1Ki.2:19 where Solomon has a throne brought for his mother and she sits down at his right hand), in the case of the heavenly throne, the case is more one of our Lord sharing the Father's chariot (in the ancient world there were usually two in a chariot) in the place of honor, the King's Son seated at the King's right hand. The presence of the Father and Son in/on this chariot-throne is thus a symbol of imminent victory over God's enemies soon to be achieved at the Second Advent when Christ returns and establishes His throne on the earth (cf. the ark's appearance in Rev.11:19, a passage which presages the Second Advent).
So, yes, Jesus is literally seated with the Father, at the right hand of the Father, but He is sharing the throne (in the chariot with the Father) rather than sitting beside it (cf. Rev.5:6: "the Lamb standing in the center of the throne") - just as we who are faithful in this life are promised to do:
The one who wins the victory, I will grant him to sit with Me on My throne just as I also have won the victory and have taken My seat with My Father on His throne.
Hope this is of help. Please also have a look at the following links:
The Throne of God.
The Judgment Seat of Christ.
Armageddon and the Second Advent.
The Judgment and Reward of the Church.
In Him with whom we shall reign forever, our victorious Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.